COLCHICUM Biological sources, Morphology, Phytochemicals, Therapeutic uses and MCQ

COLCHICUM Biological sources, Morphology, Phytochemicals, Therapeutic uses and MCQ

COLCHICUM Biological sources, Morphology, Phytochemicals, Therapeutic uses and MCQ

1. Biological sources :
• Also known as Autumn Crocus, Cigdem , colquico, meadow saffron.
• Colchicum composed of dried ripe seeds.
• It belongs to liliaceae family.
• The botanical name of colchicum is Colchicum autumnale Linn.

2. Morphological features :
• The seeds of colchicum are 2-3 mm in diameter.
• The shape of seed is globular.
• The outer surface of seeds is dark reddish –brown.
• Seeds are pitted and very hard.
• The endosperm is large, hard and oily.
• It is odourless.
• Taste is bitter and acrid.
• The roots are nothched on one side and reniform in outline.
• Roots are white and starchy from inside.
• Roots are 1/8 inch thick and varying from ¾ to 1 inch in diameter.
• Taste of root bitter and acrid.
• It have Odour is radish like and this odour lost on drying.
• It is a toxic autumn-blooming flowering plant.
• It is a perennial herb.
• Leaves are upto 25 cm long.
• Flowers are solitary,4-7 cm.
• Flower have 6 tepals and 6 stamens with orange anthers and three white styles.
• Ovary is below the ground, at the time of fertilization.
• The small embryo lies embedded in horny endosperm.

3. Chemical constituents :
• The major chemical constituent of colchicum is colchicine.
• They also have demecoicine and alkaloids as chemical constituent.
• It have resin which is known as colchicoresin as chemical constituent.
• It contain fixed oil,glucose and starch as chemical constituent.

4. Medicinal Uses :
• The roots and seeds of colchicum have analgesic, antirheumatic and cathartic properties.
• It also have emetic property.
• Colchicum is used to treat gout and rheumatic disease usually accompanied with an alkaline diuretic.
• It is also used to treat leukaemia.
• It helps to treat, chronic disease like Bechet’s syndrome.
• Also used to treat ulcer.
• It is used to treat familial Mediterranean fever.
• It is also used in plant breeding to produce polyploidy strains.
• It is also used to treat osteoarthritis of knee.

5. Adulterants :
Colchicum seeds show adulteration by fraudulent addition of glucose.

1. Biological source of colchicum
(a) Leaves of colchicum
(b) Flowers of colchicum
(c) Seeds of colchicum
(d) All of the above

2. Size of colchicum seed is
(a) 4-5 mm diameter
(b) 2-3 mm diameter
(c) 1-2 mm diameter
(d) 3-4 mm diameter

3. Taste of seed of colchicum
(a) Bitter and acrid
(b) Sweet
(c) Sour
(d) Spicy

4. Roots of colchicum
(a) Nothched on one side
(b) White and starchy
(c) 1/8 inch thick
(d) All of the above

5. Major chemical constituents of colchicum
(a) Colchicines
(b) Phenol
(c) Flavinoid
(d) All of the above

6. Chemical constituents present in colchicum
(a) Colchicoresin
(b) Fixed oil
(c) Starch
(d) All of the above

7. Colchicum have property of
(a) Analgesic
(b) Antirheumatic
(c) Cathartic
(d) All of the above

8. Colchicum used to treat
(a) Gout
(b) Rheumatic
(c) Leukemia
(d) All of the above

9. Colchicum is  adulteration with
(a) Phenol
(b) Glucose
(c) Glycerol
(d) Aldehyde

10. Colchicum used to treat which syndrome
(a) Achard syndrome
(b) Adie syndrome
(c) Cervical syndrome
(d) Bechet’s syndrome

1. All of the above
2. 2-3 mm diameter
3. Bitter and acrid
4. All of the above
5. Colchicines
6. All of the above
7. All of the above
8. All of the above
9. Glucose
10. Bechet’s syndrome

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Evans W.C, Editors . Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy , New York , Saunders Elsevier; 2009, p. 391.

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