A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue.
Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children.
Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling.
There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data