Arteriosclerosis: Definition, Senile arteriosclerosis, Hypertensive arteriosclerosis, Types of Hypertensive arteriosclerosis, Mönckeberg’s arteriosclerosis And MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

Arteriosclerosis: Definition, Senile arteriosclerosis, Hypertensive arteriosclerosis, Types of Hypertensive arteriosclerosis, Mönckeberg’s arteriosclerosis And MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF


1.] Arteriosclerosis is a general term used to include all conditions with thickening and hardening of the arterial walls.

2.] Following morphological entities are included under arteriosclerosis :-

  • Senile arteriosclerosis (it affects arteries).
  • Hypertensive arteriosclerosis (affects arteries).
  • Mönckeberg’s arteriosclerosis (medial calcific sclerosis as it affects arteries).
  • Atherosclerosis (affects arteries).


1.] It is the thickening of media and intima of the arteries seen due to the ageing in senile arteriosclerosis.

2.] The changes seen in senile arteriosclerosis is non – selective and it affects most of the arteries.

3.] Senile arteriosclerosis is caused by the stress and strain on the vessel walls during life.

4.] Following are the changes that occurs in the senile arteriosclerosis :

  • Fibroelastosis : The intima and media are thickened due to the increase in collagen and elastic tissues.
  • Elastic reduplication : The internal elastic lamina is split or it is reduplicated so that two ways layers are seen.


1.] Hypertension is the term used to describe an elevation in blood pressure.

2.] Arteriosclerosis is the term used to describe three morphological forms of vascular disease affecting arterioles and muscular arteries. These are as follows :

  • Hyaline arteriosclerosis.
  • Hyperplastic arteriosclerosis.
  • Necrotising arteriosclerosis.

These above three mentioned types are common in hypertensive arteriosclerosis, but may cause by other reasons as well.


  • It is an common arteriolar lesion that may physiologically seen due to aging and may pathologically occur in benign nephrosclerosis in hypertensive.
  • Pathogenesis : The exact pathogenesis is not known. However, following hypothesis have been proposed like –
  • The lesion result may probably from leakage of components of plasma across the vascular endothelium.
  • An alternate possibility has also been made in which lesion may occur due to the immunologic reaction.
  • Some have also considered it to be normal aging process.


  • The hyperplastic or proliferative type of the arteriosclerosis is a characteristic lesion of malignant hypertension.
  • Pathogenesis : The pathogenesis of hyperplastic intimal thickening is unclear. The changes occur may be due to endothelial injury from systemic hypertension, hypoxia or immunologic damage leading to increased permeability.


  • In case of severe hypertension and malignant hypertension, part of small arteries and arterioles show changes of hyaline sclerosis and part of these show necrosis.
  • Pathogenesis : Since necrotising arterioles occurs in vessels in which there is sudden and great elevation of pressure, the changes are said to result from direct physical injury to the vessel wall.


  • Mönckeberg’s arteriosclerosis is calcification of the media of large and the medium sized muscular arteries.
  • It occurs especially in the arteries of extremities and of the giant tract in the person pasts the age of 50.
  • The condition is an age related degenerative process and therefore is an example of dystrophic calcification.
  • Pathogenesis : Pathogenesis of these condition is not known but it is considered as an age related physiologic change due to the prolonged effect of the vasoconstriction.



1.] Mönckeberg’s calcific sclerosis affects the medium sized muscular arteries by involving the structure of ?

a. Intima

b. Media

c. Adventitia

d. All of the above

2.] In malignant hypertension hyperplastic arteriosclerosis is seen in all except?

a. Heart

b. Kidney

c. Pericardial fat

d. Peri pancreatic fat

3.] Medial calcification is seen in ?

a. Atherosclerosis

b. Arteriosclerosis

c. Mönckeberg’s sclerosis.

d. Dissecting aneurysm

4.] Onion skin thickening of anterior wall is seen in ?

a. Atherosclerosis

b. Median calcific sclerosis

c. Hyaline arteriosclerosis

d. Hyperplastic arteriosclerosis

5.] Commonest histological finding in benign hypertension ?

a. Proliferating endartheritis

b. Necrotising arteriolitis

c. Hyaline arteriosclerosis

d. Cystic medial necrosis

6.] Which of the following is the common histological finding in benign hypertension ?

a. Proliferative end aterititis

b. Necrotising arteriolitis

c. Hyaline arteriosclerosis

d. Cystic medial necrosis

7.] Hallmark feature of hyaline arteriosclerosis ?

a. Hylaine arteriosclerosis

b. Cystic medial necrosis

c. Fibrinoid necrosis

d. Hyperplastic arteriosclerosis

8.] Which of the following cells provide major proliferative stimuli for the cellular component of atherosclerosis plaques ?

a. Neutrophils

b. Eosinophils

c. Platelet

d. Erythrocytes

9.] Accelerated phase of hypertension is characterized microscopically by ?

a. Fibrinoid necrosis of anterior wall

b. Hyaline arteriosclerosis

c. Elastosis of intima

d. Marked calcification the media.

10.] Vascular pathology of benign hypertension include ?

a. Segmental fibrinoid necrosis

b. Hyaline arteriosclerosis

c. Periarteries

d. Loss of internal elastic lamina


1.] (b) media

2.] (a) heart

3.] (c) Mönckeberg’s sclerosis

4.] (d) Hyperplastic arteriosclerosis

5.] (c) Hyaline arteriosclerosis

6.] (c) Hyaline arteriosclerosis

7.] (a) Hyaline arteriosclerosis

8.] (c) Platelets

9.] (a) Fibrinoid necrosis of anterior wall

10.] (b) Hyaline arteriosclerosis


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1.] Textbook Of Pathology By Harsh Mohan; 7th edition; Page no. 371 – 373.

2.] Robbin’s Basic Pathology; 5th edition; Page no. 488 – 489.






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