Bronchial Asthma : Definition, Types, Symptoms, Treatment And MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

Bronchial Asthma : Definition, Types, Symptoms, Treatment And MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

INTRODUCTION :-

‘’Asthma is a disease characterized by hyper – reactive airways, leading to episodic, reversible bronchoconstriction owing to increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to various stimuli.’’

1.] Asthma can occur in all ages but nearly 50 % of the cases occur before the age of 10 only.

2.] In case of adults both the sexes are affected equally but in children there is 2:1 male female ratio.

TYPES :-

Based on the type of stimuli initiating bronchial asthma are of two types :

A.] Extrinsic (allergic, atopic) asthma : This is the most common type of the asthma. It usually begins in childhood or in early adult life. Patients having this type of asthma have family history of allergic diseases. Hypersensitivity to various extrinsic antigenic substance or allergens is usually present in these cases. Occupational asthma stimulated by fumes, gases and organic and chemical dust is a variant of extrinsic asthma.

B.] Intrinsic (idiosyncratic, non – atopic) asthma : This type of asthma develop later in adult life with negative personal or family history of allergy, negative skin test and normal serum level of IgE. Most of these patients develop typical symptoms complex after an upper respiratory tract infection by virus. There are no recognizable, allergens but 10 % of the patients become hypersensitive to drugs, most notably to small doses of aspirin.

SYMPTOMS :-

Some of the common symptoms of bronchial asthma are as follows :

  • Wheezing
  • Squealing
  • Also a whistling sound is made when you breath

Other asthma symptoms may include :

  • Coughing occur at night
  • Coughing occur while exercising
  • Coughing occur while laughing
  • Tightness in the chest
  • Shortness of breath
  • Difficulty in talking
  • Anxiousness or panic
  • Fatigue

TREATMENT :-

Asthma control medication include the following :

NAME FUNCTION
Anti – inflammatory Taken with an inhaler, corticosteroids and other anti – inflammatory medication.
Anticholinergics They are usually taken daily in combination with the anti – inflammatory
Long – acting bronchodilators These should only be used in combination with anti – inflammatory asthma medication.

 

Biologic – therapy drugs These new, injectable medications may help people with severe asthma.

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS :-

1.] Cerola bodies are seen in ?

a. Bronchial asthma

b. Chronic bronchitis

c. Emphysema

d. Bronchiectasis

2.] Thickening of pulmonary membrane is seen in ?

a. Asthma

b. Emphysema

c. Bronchitis

d. Bronchiectasis

3.] Charcot – Leyden crystals and Curschmann’s spirals are seen in ?

a. Chronic bronchitis

b. Bronchial asthma

c. Bronchiectasis

d. Emphysema

4.] Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease ?

a. True

b. False

5.] What is the cure of asthma ?

a. There is no cure

b. It depends on the patient

c. Both (a) and (b)

d. None of the above

6.] How long does an asthma attack lasts ?

a. Usually about 2 hours

b. Several hours or days

c. Usually about 3 hours

d. None of the above

7.] What causes an asthma attack ?

a. Allergens or the flee

b. Smoke

c. Exercise

d. All of the above

8.] The body’s poor exchange of O2 and CO2 describes ?

a. Respiratory failure

b. Pulmonary hypertension

c. Allergy related asthma

d. Exercise – induced asthma

9.] What happens in a patient when asthma symptoms become worse than usual ?

a. Crisis

b. Attack

c. Event

d. All of the above

10.] Asthma can be cured, so it is not serious and nobody dies from it ?

a. True

b. False

SOLUTIONS :-

1.] (a) Bronchial asthma

2.] (a) Asthma

3.] (b) Bronchial asthma

4.] (a)

5.] (a) There is no cure

6.] (b) Several hours or days

7.] (d)

8.] (a) Respiratory failure

9.] (b) Attack

10.] (b)

 

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REFERENCES :-

1.] Textbook Of Pathology By Harsh Mohan; 7th edition; Page no. 463 – 465.

2.] Robbin’s Basic Pathology; 5th edition; Page no. 689 – 692.

 

 

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