Hepatitis-E : HEV, Symptoms, Prevention, Treatment And MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

Hepatitis-E : HEV, Symptoms, Prevention, Treatment And MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

INTRODUCTION :-

1.] Hepatitis – E is an enterically – transmitted virus, previously labelled as epidemic or enterically transmitted variant of non – A non – B hepatitis.

2.] The infection occurs in young or middle – aged individuals, primarily seen in India, other Asian countries, Africa and Central America.

3.] The infection is generally acquired by contamination of water supplies such as after water flooding.

4.] If we compare it with HAV, secondary person – to – person infection does not occur with HEV.

5.] HEV infection has a particularly high mortality in pregnant women but is otherwise a self – limited disease and has not been associated with chronic liver disease.

6.] The average incubation period after exposure is 6 weeks.

HEPATITIS – E VIRUS ( HEV) :-

1.] HEV is a single – stranded 32 – 34 nm, icosahedral non – enveloped virus.

2.] The virus has been isolated from stools, bile and liver of the infected person.

3.] A specific antigen ( HEVAg ) can be identified in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes during active infection.

4.] The RNA genome is approximately 7.6 Kb in size.

5.] Serologic markers for HEV includes the following :-

  • Anti – HEV antibodies of both IgM and IgG class. Both falls rapidly after acute illness but routine serologic testing for HEV antibodies in not available.
  • HEV – RNA.

6.] Diagnosis has been based on the detection by immune electron microscopy a virus like particle in fecal specimen from actually ill patient or by immunoflourescences method to detect anti – HEV serologic activity.

SYMPTOMS :-

You might not have any. If you do have symptoms, they may start anywhere from 2 to 6 weeks after your infection. They may include:

  • Mild fever
  • Felling very tired
  • Less hunger
  • Felling sick to your stomach
  • Throwing up
  • Belly pain
  • Dark pee
  • Light colored poop
  • Skin rash or itching
  • Joint pain
  • Yellowish skin or eyes

PREVENTION :-

No vaccine can prevent the hepatitis E virus. It’s most common in less-developed countries in Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Central America. You can lower your chances of getting the virus if you:

  • Don’t drink water or use ice that you don’t know is clean.
  • Don’t eat undercooked pork, deer meat, or raw shellfish.

TREATMENT :-

In most cases, hepatitis E goes away on its own in about 4-6 weeks. These steps can help ease your symptoms:

  • Rest
  • Eat healthy foods
  • Drink lots of water
  • Avoid alcohol

Check with your doctor before you take any medicine that may damage your liver, such as acetaminophen.
If you’re pregnant, your doctor may keep you under watch in the hospital. If your condition is serious, you may get medicine to fight the infection.

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS :-

1.] Most reliable test for detection of hepatitis E is ?

a. ELISA test for IgM anti – HEV

b. Western blot assay for IgM anti – HEV

c. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of HEV RNA

d. ELISA test for IgG anti – HEV

2.] The infection is prominent in which age group ?

a. Young, middle aged individuals

b. Neonate

c. Both (a) and (b)

d. None of the above

3.] Secondary person – to – person infection occur in HEV ?

a. True

b. False

4.] Generally HEV is acquired by ?

a. Contamination of food

b. Oral route

c. Contamination of water supply

d. None of the above

5.] Average incubation period for HEV is ?

a. 3 week

b. 10 week

c. 1 month

d. 6 week

6.] HEV is an ?

a. Single – stranded, icosahedral, non – enveloped virus

b. Double – stranded, icosahedral, enveloped virus

c. Single – stranded, rectangular, enveloped virus

d. Double – stranded, circular, enveloped virus

7.] What is the diameter of HEV ?

a. 40 nm

b. 41 µm

c. 32 – 34 nm

d. 20 µm

8.] RNA genome of HEV is of which size ?

a. 7.6 Kb

b. 2.5 Kb

c. 7.5 Kb

d. 9.0 Kb

9.] Which antigen is identified in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes during active infection ?

a. HBVAg

b. HAVAg

c. HDVAg

d. HEVAg

10.] Diagnosis of HEV is based upon ?

a. Detection of immune electron microscopy

b. Detection through blood

c. Both (a) and (b)

d. None of the above

 

SOLUTIONS :-

1.] (c) polymerase chain reaction for detection of HEV RNA

2.] (a) young, middle aged individuals

3.] (b)

4.] (c) contamination of water supply

5.] (d) 6 week

6.] (a) single – stranded, icosahedral, non – enveloped virus

7.] (c) 32 – 34 nm

8.] (a) 7.6 Kb

9.] (d) HEVAg

10.] (a) detection of immune electron microscopy

 

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REFERENCES :-

1.] Textbook Of Pathology By Harsh Mohan; 7th edition; Page no. 594

2.] Robbin’s Basic Pathology; 5th edition; Page no. 849

 

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