Cassia Biological Sources, Morphological Features, Chemical Constituents, Uses and Question and Answer

Cassia Biological Sources, Morphological Features, Chemical Constituents, Uses and Question and Answer

Cassia

Synonym :- 

Chinese Cinnamon, Bastard Cinnamon

Biological Source:-

consists of the dried stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia Blume. It contains not less than 1.0% v/w volatile oil. Family: Lauraceae

Morphology:-

Condition- dry;

Shape- single double or compound quills;

Size- varying length, 6-10 mm in diameter, thickness not more than 0.5 mm.

External surface-Yellowish brown with shining wavy lines of pericyclic fibres.

Internal surface- darker, straight striations;

Fracture-short and splintery;

Taste-warm sweet and aromatic;

Odour– fragrant.

Powder characters:-

1. Odour: the typical pleasant aroma.

2. Fibers: thin, narrow pointed and isolated bast fibres measure 250 – 700 microns in length and 15 – 45 microns in breadth.

3. Stone cells: in groups, rectangular (appears as ‘U’ shaped as one wall is not thickened) and pitted.

4. Starch: abundant starch and the grains measure up to 20 microns.

5. Calcium oxalate: is represented in the form of minute needles (acicular raphides) in medullary ray cells and phloem parenchyma.

6. Oil cells: big and isolated.

7. Cork: Occasional fragments.

Chemical constituents :- 

  • Cassia bark yields 1 to 2% of volatile oil.It also has about 80 % cinnamyl acetate, cinnamic acid, caryophyllene, phenylpropyl acetate, orthocumaric aldehyde, coumarin, tannic acid, and starch.
  • Eugenol is absent.
  • The value of the drug depends on the percentage of cinnamic aldehyde present in it.

Uses :- 

  • Antiseptic
  • Carminative
  • Decrease milk secretion
  • Germicidal

Substituents & Adulterant :-

  • Cinnamon Chips :- Untrimmed bark so it is distinguished from genuine drug by presence of abundant cork cells.
  • Java cinnamon :- Bark is double quill and medullary contain small tubular Ca oxalate.
Chinese Cinnamon Indian Cinnamon
Stem bark is single quil Compound quil
Complete stem bark and cork contain polygonal tubular cells It is inner bark so it lack cork and primary cortex
Very small amount of eugenol 5-10% Eugenol
Coumarin Not contain coumarin
Acicular ca oxalate Crystal and starch grains are abundant Acicular ca oxalate and starch grains.

MCQ.

1. Cassia belong to family

A. Combretaceae

B. Solanaceae

C. Liliaceae

D. Lauraceae
2. Which of the following is synonymous of cassia

A. Ceylon cinnamon

B. Lemon gum tree

C. Bastard Cinnamon

D. Caryophyllum
3. Which of the following is adulterant of Cassia ?

A. Cuminum Cyminum

B. Java cinnamon

C. Chenopodium ambrasoids

D. Chenopodium album

4. Which of the following is not use of cassia ?

A.Germicidal

B.Decrease milk secretion

C.Carminative

D. Cigarette Preparation

5. What is difference between chinese and indian Cinnamon ?

A. In indian Cinnamon has very small amount of Eugenol and chinese cinnamon has 5-10 percentage eugenol.

B. Indian Cinnamon contain coumarin.

C. Chinese Cinnamon has compound quill.

D. Indian Cinnamon do not contain coumarin while chinese cinnamon contain coumarin.
6. Which of the following is chemical constituents is present in cassia ?

A.  Cinnamic aldehyde

B. A and C

C. Coumarin

D. Eugenol
7. Which of the following is powder characteristics of cassia ?

A. Thin, narrow pointed and isolated bast fibres measure 250 – 700 microns in length and 15 – 45 microns in breadth.

B. Abundant starch and the grains measure up to 20 microns.

C. Oil cell is big and isolated.

D. All of the above
8. Which of the following is adulterant of Cassia ?

A. Cinnamon Chips

B. Cuminum Cyminum

C. Chenopodium ambrasoids

D. Chenopodium album
9. Which of the following is major chemical constituents of Cassia ?

A. Methyl-o-cumin

B. Cinnamic aldehyde

C. Coumarin

D. Eugenol
10.which of the following is not macroscopic Characteristics of cassia ?

A. It is 3-6 mm in diameter.

B. Bark color is brown

C. It has single quils.

D. It has sweet and aromatic taste.

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Answer Key :-

1. D

2. C

3. B

4. D

5. D

6. B

7. D

8. A

9. B

10. A

Reference :-

16 Edition of Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy Text Book ( Pg. No. :- 241)

A Review on Cassia species: Pharmacological, Traditional and Medicinal Aspects in Various Countries

https://www.imedpub.com/abstract/a-review-on-cassia-speciesrnpharmacological-traditional-and-medicinalrnaspects-in-various-countries-10212.html

This information is taken only for education purpose.

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