# ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, Abnormal ECG AND MCQs based on Heart Problems

## ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, Abnormal ECG AND MCQs based on Heart Problems

An ELECTROCARDIOGRAM is a recording of electrical signals generated by heart. The instrument used to record these signals is known as electrocardiograph. The ECG consist of different waves which are as follows-the first, known as P-wave, is a small wale of upward deflection on the ECG. This wave represents atrial depolarization that is contraction of atria. The next is the QRS complex which looks like a up-down wave, this complex represents the ventricular depolarization i.e contraction of ventricles. The last and the third is the T-wave , a downward wave representing the ventricular repolarization means relaxation of ventricles. This T wave is smaller and slight wider than other waves because heart takes more time for relaxation than contraction. This image shown above represents all these waves of an ECG in normal condition i.e when the person’s heart functions properly. Any changes in the positions of these waves shows that the person is suffering with certain type of abnormalities.

• If the P- wave is larger, it indicates enlargement of atrium
• While enlargement  of Q WAVE represent myocardial infraction,
• Larger R wave shows enlarged ventricles
• If the T wave is flatter than it indicates that the heart is getting insufficient oxygen and if the T wave is elevated than in normal condition that is shows hyperkalemia.
• PQ segment
• ST segment
• QT segment.

## MULTIPLE CHOISE QUESTION(MCQs)

1. ECG is used for examination of?
A. heart                                                                                          B. kidney
C. LUNGS                                                                                      D. BRAIN
Ans- heart

2.In ECG relaxation of ventricles is represented by?

A. P-wave                             B. T wave

C.U wave                              D. QRS complex

Ans- T wave

3.Match the following:
(a)represents the time from                              1.QRS complex
Beginning of ventricular depolarization         2.P wave
To the end of ventricular repolarization          3. Q-T interval
(b)represents atrial depolarization                  4.PQ interval
(c)represents the onset of ventricular
Depolarization
(d)represents time from beginning of atrial
excitation to the beginning of ventricular
excitation.
Ans-  (a) – 3     (b) – 2    (c) – 1       (d) – 4

4. What does lengthening of P wave indicate
A. Myocardial infraction                                            B. Enlargement of atria
C. Ventricular enlargement                                       D. Hyperkalamia

Ans – enlargement of atria

5. What happens if T wave becomes wider?
A. CONDUCTION Abnormalities                            B. insufficient oxygen to heart
C. hyperkalamia                                                          D. myocardial ischemia
Ans- insufficient oxygen to heart

6. What does elevated ST segment represents?
A. insufficient oxygen                                               B. acute myocardial infraction
C. Rheumatic fever                                                    D. ischemia
Ans- option B

7. What does enlarged R wave indicate?
A. enlarged atria                                                       B. Rheumatic fever
C. Coronary artery disease                                      D. none of the above
Ans – none of the above

8. Which of the following statement is NOT true?
A. P wave indicate atrial contraction
B. depressed ST segment indicate hyperkalamia
C. T wave represents ventricular repolarization
d. QRS complex represents ventricular depolarization
Ans- option B

9. ECG was first developed by?
A. Steward                                                                   B. Willem Einthoven
C. Koch                                                                         D. Hubbert Mann
Ans- Willem Einthoven

10.Which of the following is the part of ECG?

A. QRS complex                                                          B. ST segment
C. T wave                                                                      D. All of the above
Ans- all of the above

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### 2.Gerard J Tortora- Principles of Anatomy and Physiology; 12th edition; page no.735-736.

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