1.] Hepatitis – A is an long known ” Infectious Hepatitis ” is an benign self – limited disease with an incubation period of about 14 – 45 days.
2.] Hepatitis – A is responsible for 20 – 25 % of clinical hepatitis in the developing countries of the world but the incidence of this disease in much lower in the developed countries.
SPREAD OF THE HAV/ HEPATITIS – A :-
- It is exclusively spread by faeco – oral route.
- It is also related to close personal contact such as in over crowding, poor hygienic and sanitary conditions.
- Frozen and stored contaminated food and water have been blamed in many epidemics.
- Most frequently affected age group is 5 – 14 years, adults are often infected by spread from children.
- Because the viremia (presence of virus in blood) of acute HAV is transient (during the relatively short incubation period and the first day of symptom) this agent is rarely implicated in transfusion-acquired hepatitis.
HEPATITIS – A VIRUS (HAV) :-
- The etiologic agent of hepatitis – A, HAV is an small 27nm diameter, isosahedral (a type of polyhedron with 20 faces), non – enveloped single stranded RNA virus.
- HAV infection can be transmitted to primates and the virus can be cultivated in – vitro.
- HAV replicates and is released from the infected cell without having any adverse affect on them.
- The virus is present in the liver cell, bile, stool and blood during the incubation period.
- Inactivation of viral activity can be achieved by boiling it for about 1 min., by ultraviolet radiation, or by contact with formaldehyde and chlorine.
Evidences that hepatitis caused by HAV has an immunologic basis comes from demonstration of following antibodies acting as serum makers for the hepatitis – A infection.
- IgM anti – HAV antibody appears in the serum at the onset of symptoms of acute hepatitis – A.
- IgG anti – HAV antibody is detected in the serum after acute illness and remains detectable indefinitely. It provides lifetime protective immunity against reinfection with HAV.
No specific treatment exists for hepatitis A. Your body will clear the hepatitis A virus on its own. In most cases of hepatitis A, the liver heals within six months with no lasting damage.
Hepatitis A treatment usually focuses on keeping comfortable and controlling signs and symptoms. You may need to:
- Rest. Many people with hepatitis A infection feel tired and sick and have less energy.
- Manage nausea. Nausea can make it difficult to eat. Try snacking throughout the day rather than eating full meals. To get enough calories, eat more high-calorie foods. For instance, drink fruit juice or milk rather than water. Drinking plenty of fluids is important to prevent dehydration if vomiting occurs.
- Avoid alcohol and use medications with care. Your liver may have difficulty processing medications and alcohol. If you have hepatitis, don’t drink alcohol. It can cause more liver damage. Talk to your doctor about all the medications you take, including over-the-counter drugs.
Certain drugs which are used in the treatment of hepatitis A are GamaSTAN S/ D and immune globulin intramuscular
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS :-
1.] In 2012, the hepatitis – A burden in the U.S. includes ?
a. 1,562 illnesses
b. 1,562 hospitalizations
c. 1,562 deaths
d. $ 1,562
2.] If you are infected with hepatitis – A virus, you will most likely become sick ?
a. Within few hours
b. Within 1 week
c. Within 2 – 7 weeks
c. Within 1 year
3.] Which of the following statement is true about hepatitis – A ?
a. A person infected with hepatitis – A can spread the disease before symptom begin and up to 1 week after onset of jaundice
b. A person infected with hepatitis – A cannot spread the disease to others
c. A person infected with hepatitis – A can spread the disease only while experiencing symptoms.
d. Children are very rarely infected with hepatitis – A and do not spread disease to others.
4.] Clinical diseases (hepatitis – A infection) symptom include sudden onset of ?
b. Fever, Tiredness, Loss of appetite and Nausea
c. Jaundice, Diarrhea and Vomiting
d. Dark – colored urine, light colored feces and jaundice
5.] A few days after the first symptom begins, person suffering from hepatitis – A may begin to experience ?
b. Jaundice, Diarrhea and Vomiting
c. Dark – colored urine, light colored feces and jaundice
d. Fever, Tiredness, Loss of appetite and Nausea
6.] Hepatitis – A is transmitted through ?
a. Fecal – oral route, contaminated food, water of ice
b. Causal contact
c. Contact with infected animal
d. Temperature/ time abused food where the virus was able to grow and multiply
7.] What is diameter of HAV virus ?
a. 27 nm
b. 27 mm
c. 26 nm
d. 28 nm
8.] HAV virus is which type of virus ?
a. small, isosahedral, non – enveloped, double stranded RNA virus
b. small, isosahedral, non – enveloped, single stranded RNA virus
c. large, isosahedral, enveloped, single stranded RNA virus
d. none of the above
9.] Which antibody appears in the serum at the onset of symptom of acute hepatitis – A ?
10.] Most frequently affected age group are ?
b. 5 – 14 years
c. Both (a) and (b)
d. None of the above
1.] (a) 1,562 illnesses
2.] (c) within 2 – 7 weeks
3.] (a) a person infected with hepatitis – A can spread the disease before symptom begin amd up to 1 week after onset of jaundice
4.] (b) fever, tiredness, loss of appetite and nausea
5.] (c) dark – colored urine, light colored feces and jaundice
6.] (a) fecal – oral route, contaminated food, water and ice
7.] (a) 27 nm
8.] (b) small, isosahedral, non – enveloped, single stranded RNA virus
9.] (c) IgM
10.] (b) 5 – 14 years
1.] Textbook Of Pathology By Harsh Mohan; 7th edition; Page no. 590.
2.] Robbin’s Basic Pathology; 5th edition; Page no. 843 – 844.