Ischemic Heart Failure : Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Pathogenesis, Treatment And MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

“Ischemic heart failure is defined as acute or chronic form of cardiac disability arising from imbalance between the myocardial supply and demand of oxygenated blood.”

INTRODUCTION :-

  • IHD (Ischemic Heart Failure) is often termed as coronary artery disease [CAD] or coronary heart disease [CHD].
  • Men are at greater risk of having IHD as compared to women.

CAUSES :-

1.] Ischemic heart failure typically is caused by a heart attack or a coronary artery disease.

2.] Risk factor of this condition include :-

  • Family history of coronary heart disease.
  • High blood pressure, also known as hypertension.
  • High cholesterol.
  • Obesity.
  • Diabetes mellitus.
  • End – stage kidney disease.
  • Amyloidosis, a condition in which abnormal protein build up in your tissues and organs including blood vessels.
  • Sedentary lifestyle.
  • History of smoking tobacco.
  • Alcohol or drug abuse.

SYMPTOMS :-

It is possible to have early stage heart disease with no symptoms. If blood flow become impaired due to coronary artery disease, you may experience :

  • Extreme fatigue.
  • Shortness of breathe.
  • Dizziness, fainting.
  • Chest pain and pressure, known as angina.
  • Heart palpitation.
  • Swelling in your legs and feet, known as edema.
  • Swelling in your abdomen.
  • Cough or congestion, caused by fluid in your lungs.
  • Difficult sleeping.
  • Weight gain.

PATHOGENESIS :-

The dominant influence in the causation of the ischemic heart disease syndrome is diminished in the causation coronary perfusion relative to myocardial demand, owing largely to a complex dynamic interaction among fixed atherosclerotic narrowing of the epicardial coronary arteries, intraluminal thrombosis overlying a ruptured or fissured atherosclerotic plaque, platelet aggregation and vasoplasm.

TREATMENT :-

Medication of ischemic heart disease include :

  • A beta – blocker to reduce your blood pressure and heart rate.
  • A calcium channel blocker to relax and widen your arteries and lower your blood pressure.
  • An aldosterone inhibitor to lower your blood pressure and rid your body of excess of fluid to help ease symptoms such as swelling and shortness of breathe.
  • Other types of diuretics to rid your body of excess fluid lower your blood pressure, and reduce the amount of work your heart muscles has to do.
  • A blood thinner or a medication to treat high cholesterol.
  • Surgery and other procedures may include – implantation of a pacemaker, defibrillator, balloon angioplasty, radiation therapy etc.

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS :-

1.] Which of the following is a symptom of coronary artery disease ?

a. Headache

b. Sleep problem

c. Pain or discomfort in the chest, arms or lower jaw

d. Diarrhea

2.] Which test is used to diagnose CAD ?

a. Electrocardiogram

b. Treadmill stress test

c. Cardiac catheterization

d. All of the above

3.] One possible treatment for CAD in coronary angioplasty. What dies it involve ?

a. A new section of artery replaces the blocked section

b. A tiny balloon is infalnted in the artery

c. Medicine is used to expand artery

d. All of the above

4.] What is stent ?

a. A new section of artery

b. A collect tube

c. A wire mesh tube

d. A slow – release medicine capsule

5.] Some people who have coronary angioplasty done, the artery narrows or become blocked again within 6 months if a stent is not used. When is this more likely to happen ?

a. If you smoke

b. If you have diabetes

c. If you have unstable angina before the procedure

d. All of the above

6.] Which lifestyle factor has a great impact on your health after angioplasty ?

a. Obesity

b. High blood pressure

c. Inactive lifestyle

d. Smoking

7.] What is the most common cause of right sided heart failure ?

a. Left sided heart failure

b. Chronic lung disease

c. Hypothyroidism

c. Chronic lung disease

d. None of the above

8.] What is the most common cause of mitral stenosis ?

a. Chronic rheumatic valve failure

b. Acute rheumatic fever

c. Congestive heart failure

d. Infective endocarditis

9.] What is the most common cause of SCD ?

a. Cocaine abuse

b. Mitral valve prolapse

c. Cardiomyopathy

d. Ventricular arrhythmia

10.] Ischemia is ?

a. Restriction of blood supply to tissues

b. Inadequate deoxygenated blood carrying veins

c. Overflow of blood to tissues

d. The medical term for shortness of breathe

 

SOLUTIONS :-

1.] (c) pain or discomfort in the chest, arm or lower jaw

2.] (d)

3.] (b) a tiny balloon is infalnted inside an artery

4.] (c) a wire mesh tube

5.] (d)

6.] (d) smoking

7.] (a) left sided heart failure

8.] (a) a chronic rheumatic valve disease

9.] (a) cocaine abuse

10.] (a) restriction of blood supply to tissues

 

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REFERENCES :-

1.] Textbook Of Pathology By Harsh Mohan; 7th edition; Page no. 407 – 416.

2.] Robbin’s Basic Pathology; 5th edition; Page no. 524 – 528.

 

 

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