“Ischemic heart failure is defined as acute or chronic form of cardiac disability arising from imbalance between the myocardial supply and demand of oxygenated blood.”
- IHD (Ischemic Heart Failure) is often termed as coronary artery disease [CAD] or coronary heart disease [CHD].
- Men are at greater risk of having IHD as compared to women.
1.] Ischemic heart failure typically is caused by a heart attack or a coronary artery disease.
2.] Risk factor of this condition include :-
- Family history of coronary heart disease.
- High blood pressure, also known as hypertension.
- High cholesterol.
- Diabetes mellitus.
- End – stage kidney disease.
- Amyloidosis, a condition in which abnormal protein build up in your tissues and organs including blood vessels.
- Sedentary lifestyle.
- History of smoking tobacco.
- Alcohol or drug abuse.
It is possible to have early stage heart disease with no symptoms. If blood flow become impaired due to coronary artery disease, you may experience :
- Extreme fatigue.
- Shortness of breathe.
- Dizziness, fainting.
- Chest pain and pressure, known as angina.
- Heart palpitation.
- Swelling in your legs and feet, known as edema.
- Swelling in your abdomen.
- Cough or congestion, caused by fluid in your lungs.
- Difficult sleeping.
- Weight gain.
The dominant influence in the causation of the ischemic heart disease syndrome is diminished in the causation coronary perfusion relative to myocardial demand, owing largely to a complex dynamic interaction among fixed atherosclerotic narrowing of the epicardial coronary arteries, intraluminal thrombosis overlying a ruptured or fissured atherosclerotic plaque, platelet aggregation and vasoplasm.
Medication of ischemic heart disease include :
- A beta – blocker to reduce your blood pressure and heart rate.
- A calcium channel blocker to relax and widen your arteries and lower your blood pressure.
- An aldosterone inhibitor to lower your blood pressure and rid your body of excess of fluid to help ease symptoms such as swelling and shortness of breathe.
- Other types of diuretics to rid your body of excess fluid lower your blood pressure, and reduce the amount of work your heart muscles has to do.
- A blood thinner or a medication to treat high cholesterol.
- Surgery and other procedures may include – implantation of a pacemaker, defibrillator, balloon angioplasty, radiation therapy etc.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS :-
1.] Which of the following is a symptom of coronary artery disease ?
b. Sleep problem
c. Pain or discomfort in the chest, arms or lower jaw
2.] Which test is used to diagnose CAD ?
b. Treadmill stress test
c. Cardiac catheterization
d. All of the above
3.] One possible treatment for CAD in coronary angioplasty. What dies it involve ?
a. A new section of artery replaces the blocked section
b. A tiny balloon is infalnted in the artery
c. Medicine is used to expand artery
d. All of the above
4.] What is stent ?
a. A new section of artery
b. A collect tube
c. A wire mesh tube
d. A slow – release medicine capsule
5.] Some people who have coronary angioplasty done, the artery narrows or become blocked again within 6 months if a stent is not used. When is this more likely to happen ?
a. If you smoke
b. If you have diabetes
c. If you have unstable angina before the procedure
d. All of the above
6.] Which lifestyle factor has a great impact on your health after angioplasty ?
b. High blood pressure
c. Inactive lifestyle
7.] What is the most common cause of right sided heart failure ?
a. Left sided heart failure
b. Chronic lung disease
c. Chronic lung disease
d. None of the above
8.] What is the most common cause of mitral stenosis ?
a. Chronic rheumatic valve failure
b. Acute rheumatic fever
c. Congestive heart failure
d. Infective endocarditis
9.] What is the most common cause of SCD ?
a. Cocaine abuse
b. Mitral valve prolapse
d. Ventricular arrhythmia
10.] Ischemia is ?
a. Restriction of blood supply to tissues
b. Inadequate deoxygenated blood carrying veins
c. Overflow of blood to tissues
d. The medical term for shortness of breathe
1.] (c) pain or discomfort in the chest, arm or lower jaw
3.] (b) a tiny balloon is infalnted inside an artery
4.] (c) a wire mesh tube
6.] (d) smoking
7.] (a) left sided heart failure
8.] (a) a chronic rheumatic valve disease
9.] (a) cocaine abuse
10.] (a) restriction of blood supply to tissues
1.] Textbook Of Pathology By Harsh Mohan; 7th edition; Page no. 407 – 416.
2.] Robbin’s Basic Pathology; 5th edition; Page no. 524 – 528.