LEPROSY:SYMPTOMS, TRANSMISSION, CAUSATIVE AGENT,PATHOGENESIS, TREATMENT AND MCQ

LEPROSY:SYMPTOMS, TRANSMISSION, CAUSATIVE AGENT,PATHOGENESIS, TREATMENT AND MCQ

INTRODUCTION:

1.) Leprosy is also called Hansen’s disease.

2.) Leprosy was first discovered by a scientist named Hansen in the year 1874 by discovering its causative agent.

3.) In leprosy mainly cooler body parts of the patient are affected.

4.) In advance cases of leprosy secondary amyloidosis (deposition of amyloids in body) and renal disease may occur.

5.) In India, the disease more commonly is states of Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Poducherry, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal and Assam.

CAUSATIVE AGENT: Caused by Mycobacterim leprae

1.) This organism in tissue may appear as compact rounded masses or arranged in parallel fashion like cigarettes in pack.

2.) Nine – banded armadillo, a rodent , act as experimental model for the study of leprosy because it develops leprosy both histologically and immunologically similar to humans.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION:

1.) Leprosy is an slow communicable disease .

2.) It’s incubation period between first exposure and appearance of sign of disease varies from 2 to 20 years (average 3 years).

3.) It may spread through direct contact with an untreated leprosy patient, because they spread numerous bacilli through their sheded skin, nasal secretion etc.

4.) Through maternal – foetal transmission across placenta.

5.) Through the leprosy infected mother to infant.

PATHOGENESIS:

1.) Mycobacterium leprae is an acid – fast (not easily decolourized by acid when stained) obligate intracellular organism.

2.) THIS M. leprae cannot be cultured artificially but can be grown in nine – banded armadillo.

3.) The growth of  M. Leprae is slower than other mycobacterium.

4.) Best temperature for the growth of M. Leprae is 32 – 34 °C.

5.) Leprosy is an bipolar disease determines by the host cellular immune response.

6.) The cell wall of the M. leprae is similar to the cell wall of M.tuberculosis that immunization to BCG ( Bacilli Calmette Guerin an effective immunization against tuberculosis) alone confers 50% protection against M. Leprae infection.

7.) The viruclence of M. Leprae depends upon the properties of cell wall.

LEPROMIN TEST: It is not an diagnostic test but is used for classifying leprosy on the basis of immune response.

TWO MAIN FORMS OF LEPROSY:

1.) LEPROMATOUS LEPROSY: Spongy swelling on the face and the body, involves internal organs as well, loss of feelings, injury and infection results loss of appendages.

Leonine Facies: Lepromatous Leprosy | NEJM

2.) TUBERCULOID LEPROSY: Less severe, change in skin color,lasts for 1 – 3 years, not fatal.

Patient with borderline tuberculoid leprosy face lesion with ...

TREATMENT: Anti – leprosy vaccines have been developed but are undergoing human trials yet. Since the incubation period of leprosy is quite long, the efficacy of such vaccines will be known after number of years.

MEDICINE: Drugs are given as per the patient condition

  • Dapsone
  • Clofazimine
  • Rifampin

QUESTIONS…..

QUES:1) Leprosy is also known as ?

a. Anthrax

b. Hansen’s disease

c. Tyson’s disease

d. Handen’s disease

QUES:2) Leprosy is caused by which microorganism ?

a. Clostridum perfringes

b. Mycobacteriym leprae

c. Mycobacterium tuberculosis

d. None of the above

QUES:3) Aside from humans what other animal is susceptible to leprosy ?

a. Monkey

b. Armadillo

c. Both (a) and (b)

D. None of these

 QUES:4) Which disease is closely related to leprosy ?

a. Pneumonia

b. Typhoid

c. Tuberculosis

d. None of the above

QUES:5) Which of the following statement is not true for leprosy ?

a. Leprosy can cause blindness

b. Leprosy is highly contagious

c. Leprosy can cause disfigurement

d. Leprosy can cause numbness in the skin

QUES:6) Best temperature for the growth of M. leprae ?

a. 50°C

b. 39°C

C. 32 – 34°C

d. 27 – 30°C

QUES:7) M. Leprae is?

a. Acid fast

b. Acid slow

c. Both (a) and  (b)

d. None of the above

QUES:8) Lepromin test is used for ?

a. Classifying on the basis of immune response

b. Diagnostic test

c. Both (a) and (b)

d. None of the above

QUES:9) The viruclence of M. Leprae depends upon ?

a. Cytoplasm

b. Nucleus

c. Cell wall

d. Mitochondria

QUES:10) What is the average incubation period of M. leprae?

a. 5 year

b. 6 year

c. 1 year

d. 3 year

 

SOLUTION:

Sol.1]  (b) Hansen’s diseease

Sol.2]  (b) Mycobacteriym leprae

Sol.3]  (b) Armadillo

Sol.4]  (c) Tuberculosis

Sol.5]  (b) Leprosy is highly contaginous

Sol.6]  (c) 32 – 34° C

Sol.7]  (a) Acid fast

Sol.8]  (a) Classifying on the basis of immune response

Sol.9]  (c) Cell wall

Sol.10]  (d) 3 years

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REFERENCE:

1.) Robbin’s basic pathology.

2.) Textbook of pathology by Harsh Mohan.

 

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