Pharmaceutical Aerosols application, impacts of propellants on the environment and MCQs for GPAT, NIPER, Pharmacist and Drug Inspector exam

Pharmaceutical Aerosols application, impacts of propellants on the environment and MCQs for GPAT, NIPER, Pharmacist and Drug Inspector exam

Pharmaceutical Aerosols Applications:

  • They are used for their local action in the nasal areas, throat, and lungs, as well as for prompt systemic effect when absorbed from the lungs into the bloodstream (inhalation therapy).
  • They are intended for topical application to the skin as well as local application into the nose (nasal aerosols), mouth (lingual aerosols) or lungs (inhalation aerosols).
  • In addition, aerosols are used in healthcare as disinfectants, inhalers, anesthetic preparations.

Impacts of propellants on the environment:

Ozone Layer Depletion –

  • Traditional aerosol cans facilitate the release of VOCs into the atmosphere. This causes environmental pollution as a result of the interaction of VOCs with nitrogen oxides. This reaction leads to the formation of ground-level ozone. Moreover, keep in mind the fact the ozone, ground-level ozone molecules are potentially threatening.
  • This is because they can equally interact with sunlight UV rays to increase the creation of ground-level ozone. This means that during sunny days, the ozone layer is higher than anticipated. When considering aerosol spray environmental effects, do not forget to encompass how the aerosol canister can equally heighten smog production and air pollution.
  • A standard aerosol canister contains VOCs which massively contribute to minimized visibility in the environment due to the presence of smog. The fact that there are many sources of nitrogen oxides such as vehicles and production industries, gaseous pollutants become rampant in the air. Consequently, areas that experience too much smog end up forming a regional phenomenon of smog.
  • This is one of the negative aerosol spray environmental effects because, during stagnant weather conditions, the smog worsens. The same happens when the sun is up so high.

Causes Emission of Hazardous Gases to the Environment –

  • Traditional aerosols cans’ packaging uses several hazardous gases that cause significant effects on the environment. When working with conventional packaged aerosol, employees and the people living nearby are exposed to some dangerous situations.
  • In recent years, consumers have been exposed to injuries from flammable and explosive gases used in aerosol packaging.
  • The gases used in the manufacturing and packaging of aerosols spray lead to environmental effects causing mass deaths or long term disabilities. Moreover, continuous exposure of these environmental conditions to sensitive generations such as babies and seniors threatens life expectancy.
  • Traditional packaged aerosol products are typically controlled through high-pressure gases, which are a disaster waiting to occur. Additionally, the aerosol spray environmental effects also come as a result of unintended depressurization of the aerosol can. For instance, a faulty valve, puncture, or even corrosion can cause an explosion burning everyone and everything around that specific area. However, to stop this from happening, traditional spray cans should be stored in a cool, dry place where there is limited heat.
  • The idea here is to avoid pressure in the boxes from increasing and causing unnecessary explosions. In certain developing countries, the use of traditional aerosol cans has been banned entirely because of the aerosol spray environmental effects it causes such as air and soil pollution. For example, in the United States, these cans are considered dangerous waste products when poorly disposed.

Increases Radiation –

  • One of the most dangerous traditional aerosol spray environmental effects is radiation. It is well, known to increase radiation longer wavelength or decrease in the shorter wavelength.
  • The gases trapped in the cans are not safe when exposed to the environment and can cause damage to the human brain as well as the plants. The greenhouse effect of traditional propellants and the flammable and explosive nature of these gases are compressed into these cans increase radiation and cause an imbalance of gases in the atmosphere.
  • In addition, with the traditional climate model, aerosol spray environmental effects have proven to be of great uncertainties. It causes a distressing increase in radiation and affects the surface temperature.
  • The conventional understanding is that the higher the rate of radiation, the higher the climatic sensitivity and its concentration over land surfaces. Moreover, aerosol spray environmental effects have increased since there is a rise in the greenhouses the entire world. The atmosphere is corrupted, soil and the air that human beings and plants take in has been ruined. Traditional aerosols cans have few effects on the environment but they are extremely deadly.

Poor aerosol canister disposal is environmentally hazardous –

  • Once the liquid or pressurized liquid is over in the aerosol canister, poor disposal of the empty cans can be hazardous. The recommended course of action is to correctly dispose of the can for recycling under scrap metals. Today, aerosol canister production and packaging companies understand that recycling is part of the initiative of mitigating aerosol spray environmental effects.
  • The direct and indirect aerosol spray environment effects revolve around the collective processes involved in the pressurization, packaging, and chemical reactions. The fact is that aerosol cans are flammable.
  • Poor disposal could propel the spread of a small fire which can affect the environment through air and soil pollution. Positive aerosol spray environmental effects stretch far and wide. Nonetheless, what is distinct about all of them is their canisters can be recycled. The idea of designing environmentally friendly aerosol cans targets the negative implications of dangerously lying and littered empty cans.
  • In the United States, different states have contrasting rules and regulations regarding hazardous waste. Since aerosol canisters can be recycled, the dilemma is that they cannot be rendered hazardous immediately after usage or once they are empty. This is why modern industries aim for the production of CFC-free products to minimize aerosol spray environmental effects in the future.
  • Traditional aerosol cans have their positive values as well. However, due to technological advancement, other methods of packaging aerosols keep popping.

Multiple choice questions:

1.Applications of aerosols are

a)They are used for their local action in the nasal areas, throat, and lungs, as well as for prompt systemic effect when absorbed from the lungs into the bloodstream (inhalation therapy)

b)They are intended for topical application to the skin as well as local application into the nose (nasal aerosols), mouth (lingual aerosols) or lungs (inhalation aerosols)

c)In addition, aerosols are used in healthcare as disinfectants, inhalers, anesthetic preparations

d)All of these

2.Impacts of propellants on the environment are

a)Ozone Layer Depletion

b)Causes Emission of Hazardous Gases to the Environment

c)Increases Radiation

d)All of these

3.Traditional aerosol cans facilitate the release of VOCs into the atmosphere.

a)true

b)false

4.What happens when VOCs react with nitrogen oxides?

a)ground-level ozone formation

b)acid formation

c)explosive product is formed

d)all of these

5.Aerosol canister can heighten

a)smog production

b)air pollution

c)both of these

d)none of these

6.Traditional aerosols cans’ packaging uses several hazardous gases that do not cause any effect on the environment.

a)true

b)false

7.The gases used in the manufacturing and packaging of aerosols spray lead to environmental effects causing

a)mass deaths

b)long term disabilities

c)both of these

d)none of these

8.A faulty valve, puncture, or even corrosion can cause an explosion burning everyone and everything around that specific area.

a)true

b)false

9.One of the most dangerous traditional aerosol spray environmental effects is

a)radiation

b)explosion

c)water pollution

d)soil pollution

10.The gases trapped in the aerosol cans are not safe when exposed to the environment and can cause damage to

a)human brain

b)plants

c)both of these

d)none of these

11.The greenhouse effect of traditional propellants and the flammable and explosive nature of these gases are compressed into these cans increase radiation and cause an imbalance of gases in the atmosphere.

a)true

b)false

12.The recommended course of action is to correctly dispose of the aerosol can for ____ under scrap metals.

a)recycling

b)discarding

c)dumping

d)crushing

13.The direct and indirect aerosol spray environment effects revolve around the collective processes involved in the

a)pressurization

b)packaging

c)chemical reactions

d)all of these

14.The idea of designing ____ aerosol cans targets the negative implications of dangerously lying and littered empty cans.

a)environment friendly

b)plastic

c)thermoplastic

d)b and c

15.Once the liquid or pressurized liquid is over in the aerosol canister, poor disposal of the empty cans can be

a)safe

b)hazardous

c)eco friendly

d)none of these

Solutions:

  1. d)All of these
  2. d)All of these
  3. a)true
  4. a)ground-level ozone formation
  5. c)both of these
  6. b)false
  7. c)both of these
  8. a)true
  9. a)radiation
  10. c)both of these
  11. a)true
  12. a)recycling
  13. d)all of these
  14. a)environment friendly
  15. b)hazardous

Reference:

  1. Remington Essential of Pharmaceutics, 1st edition 2013, page no. 644.

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