1.Biological sources :
- The biological source of plantago is plantago psyllium.
- It is the dried ripe seeds of this tree.
- It belongs to the plantaginaceae family.
2. Morphological features :
- The colour of this seed is pinkish grey to brown.
- They are bland and mucilageous in taste.
- They do not have any characteristics odour.
- The leaves of this tree are sessile .
- Leaves contain a narrow part near the stem, which is known as pseudo – petiole.
- Leaves varies broad to narrow in shape depend on their species.
- Leaves have 3-5 parallel veins which diverted in wider part of the leaf.
- The inflorescence of this tree are borne on stalks 5-40 cm .
- Inflorescence may be tall ,short cone or a long spike.
- They have tiny wind pollinated flowers.
- They have short root with multiple standing or crouching stems.
- Stems do not have slots, which are equal to or slightly longer than the leaves.
- The shape of leaves oval with large veins and dentate margins having long petioles.
- Plantago have major therapeutic role due to presence of flavinoids, alkaloids,phenol and phenolic derivatives and terpinoids compounds.
- They also contain iridoid glycosides,fatty acids and polysaccharides.
- The major component of plantago is vitamin C which have therapeutic effect.
- It consist of 2-6.5 % mucilage, composed of 4 polysaccharide .
- It involve 6.5 % tannin, anvrtyn, emulsions and a glycoside called aucubin.
- They have diastase, heterozeid, coloring materials, pectins .
- They have more than 1 % of salicylic acid, carboxylic acids.
- In minerals they have zinc potassium.
- They have silicic acid and saponin.
- The seeds of this plant consist of glotinic materials in addition with plantenolic acid. Siccinic acid, adenine, choline and aeocoeine.
- It has specific role of wound healer.
- It is used as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti- toxic and anti-histamine.
- It has characteristics of expectorant and diuretic.
- They are also used as demulcent and styptic.
- The poultice of its leaves is used as insect-bites, minor sores .
- It is also used as a syrup in the case of cough or bronchitis.
- They are used to treat hypercholesterolemia.
- They reduce blood glucose.
- Its antioxidant quality is due to presence of large amount of phenolic compounds.( specifically flavinoid).
- The presence of phenolic compounds gives plantago one more characteristics which is work against UV radiation .
- The phenolic nature of plantago gives anti- mutation activity, because phenolic compounds in the presence of free radicals leads to inhibition of DNA damage.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS:
1.Biological name of plantago
(a) Plantago psyllium
(b) Pyrus malus
(d) Citrullus vulgaris
2. The color of seed of plantago plant is (a) Red to brown
(b) Pinkish grey to brown
(d)All of the above 3. Characteristic of leaves of plantago tree
4. Plantago used in the treatment of
5. Plantago do not contain as chemical constituent
6. The therapeutically use of plantago
(a) Anti- oxidant
(c)Anti – histamine
(d)All of the above
7.Plantago helps in
(a)Reduce blood glucose
(b)Increase blood glucose
(c)Increase blood plasma protein
(d)All of the above
8. In plantago its anti – oxidant is due to presence of
9. In plantago its phenolic characteristics work as
(a) Anti- UV radiation
(b) Anti – infrared radiation
(c) Anti- electromagnetic wave
(d) All of the above
10. Plantago seed is used as
(d)All of the above
- Plantago psyllium
- Pinkish grey to brown
- All of the above
- Reduce blood glucose
- Anti – UV radiation
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- Evans W. C, Editors. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. New York , Saunders Elsevier, 2009 , p. 300
- Anne, B samuelsen, The traditional uses, chemical constituens and biological activites of plantago, A review ,J Ethnopharmacol , 71 ,2000 ,121.