Sandal wood Biological Sources, Morphological Features, Chemical Constituents, and Uses + MCQ (10)

Sandal wood Biological Sources, Morphological Features, Chemical Constituents, and Uses + MCQ (10)

Sandal Wood


Yellow Sandal Wood, Santali Lignum.

Botanical Source :- 

Sandalwood consists of the heartwood of the stems and roots of Santalum album Linn., an evergreen small tree of the family Santalaceae.

Geographical Source :-

The plant is widely distributed in India and is cultivated under Government control in Southern India.

Macroscopical Characters of sandal wood oil :-

Colour Pale yellow
Odour Characteristics
Taste Unpleasant
Specific Gravity 0.973-0.985
Optical Rotation 15 to -20
Refractive Index 1.5-1.510
Solubility Slightly soluble in water

Soluble in alcohol

Chemical Constituents :-

  • Sandalwood contains 2 to 5 percent of volatile oil, which contains 90 to 97 percent of sesquiterpene alcohols, called santalols.
  • Sandalwood oil contain 95 % two isomeric.
  • Sesquiterpene alcohol, α- santalol and B- santalol.
  • An aldehyde santalol C15H22O, santene, santenone

Uses :-

The wood is used as a source of Sandalwood oil, which is a stimulant and disinfectant of the genito-urinary tract. It is also used in perfumery. The wood is also used to make boxes, carvings and similar articles.

Substitutes and Varieties:-

  • West Indian Sandalwood from Amyris balsamifera (Fam. Rutaceae),
  • Australian Sandalwood from Eucarya spicata and Santalum pressianum (Fam. Santalaceae)
  • Fiji Sandalwood from Santalum freycinetianum (Fam. Santalaceae) are substitutes and varieties of Sandalwood.


1. Sandalwood belong to family

A. Liliaceae

B. Solanaceae

C. Combretaceae


2. Which of the following is synonymous of sandal wood ?

A. Santali Lignum

B. Green wood

C. Iron Wood

D. Grey Wood
3. Which of the following is varieties of Sandal wood ?

A. Amyris balsamifera

B. Australian Sandalwood

C.Fiji Sandalwood

D. All of the above
4. Which of the following is not use of Sandal wood ?

A. Perfume

B. Headache

C. Inflammation

D. genito-urinary tract.

5. Which method is use for isolation of sandal wood oil ?

A. Gas chromatography

B. Soxhelt Apparatus

C. Steam Distillation

D. None of the above
6. Which of the following is formula of santalol ?

A. C15 H22 O

B. C14 H21 O

C. C13 H22 O

D. C15 H21 O
7. Which of the following is not characteristics of Sandal wood ?

A. It oil has pale yellow colour.

B. It is soluble in water.

C. It has refractive index 1.5-1.510.

D. It has pleasant smile.
8. What is specific gravity of sandal wood oil ?

A. 0.873-0.785

B. 0.973-0.985



9. Which of the following is major chemical constituents of Sandal wood?

A. Sntene

B. Santalol

C. Santenone

D. None of the above

10. What is Optical Rotation of sandal wood oil ?

A.-15 to -20

B.-15 to +20

C.15 to 20

D. 15 to -20

Answer Key

1. D

2. A

3. D

4. C

5. C

6. A

7. B

8. B

9. B

10. D

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Reference :-

16 Edition of Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy Text Book ( Pg. No. :-297 )

This information is taken only for education purpose.

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