AMYL NITRITE Synthesis, SAR, MCQ,Structure,Chemical Properties and Therapeutic Uses

AMYL NITRITE Synthesis, SAR, MCQ,Structure,Chemical Properties and Therapeutic Uses

Amyl nitrite

IUPAC nomenclature

(3-methylbutyl) nitrite


  • Organic nitrate antianginal drug


Physiochemical Properties

1 Molecular weight 117.15 g/mol
2 Physical appearance Clear colorless to yellowish liquid
3 Boiling point 97-99oC
4 Solubility Almost insoluble in water
5 Octanol/water partition coefficient log Kow = 2.85
5 Presence of ring Not present
6 Number of chiral centers Not present


Mechanism of Action

  • Amyl nitrite is the source of NO which reduces systemic pulmonary arterial pressure and decreases cardiac output through peripheral vasodilation
  • Amyl nitrite can be used in cyanide poisoning as it combines with cyanide to form cyanamethemoglobin which is a nontoxic compound.


Structure Activity Relationship

General structure activity of organic nitrate antianginal drugs be summarized as:

  • The number of nitrate groups determines the potency of organic nitrate for guanylate cyclase activation.
  • Increase in nitric group increases the potency.
  • Increase in lipophillicity doesn’t have major effect over activation of drug.


Method of synthesis

Amyl alcohol reacts with HNO2 to produce amyl nitrite. [1]


Medicinal Uses

Amyl nitrite is used for treatment and prevention of:

  • Angina pectoris


Side Effects

Side effects of Amyl nitrite are:

  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Flushing
  • Syncope
  • Hypotension
  • Tachycardia
  • Methemoglobinemia
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Weakness
  • Restlessness
  • Uncontrolled urination






Q.1 Amyl nitrite is the source of?

a) Sodium nitrate

b) Sodium nitride

c) Sodium nitrite

d) Sodium hydride

Q.2 Therapeutic use of drug amyl nitrite is/are?

a) Treatment of angina pectoris

b) Treatment of methemoglobinemia

c) Treatment of syncope

d) All of the above

Q.3 What is the effect of lipophilicity on the organic nitrate antianginal drugs?

a) Increasing lipophilicity increases the activation of drug

b) Increasing lipophilicity decreases the activation of drug

c) It may increase or decrease the activation of drug

d) Increasing lipophilicity have no major effect on activity of drug

Q.4 The starting chemicals required for the synthesis of drug amyl nitrite?

a) Propanol

b) Butanol

c) Pentanol

d) Hexanol

Q.5 Correct sequence for the True/False for the physiochemical properties of the drug amyl nitrite can be?

  • Molecular weight = 117.15 gm/mol
  • Physical appearance = colorless to yellowish liquid
  • Boiling point = 97-99 oC

a) TFT

b) FFT

c) FFF

d) TTT

Q.6 Correct statements for the IUPAC nomenclatures of the drug are?

I. Amyl nitrite: (3-methylbutyl) nitrite

II. Flufenamic acid: 2-{[3-(Trifluoromethyl)phenyl]amino}benzoic acid

III. Ketorolac: (±)-5-benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid

IV. Flubiprofen: (RS)-2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoic acid

a) I, II, III, IV

b) II, IV

c) II, III, IV

d) I, II

 Q.7 Match the following drugs with their correct classifications-

i.  Amyl nitrite A. Antianginal drug
ii. Tripelenamine B. Diuretics
iii. Acetazolamide C. Alkylating agent
iv. Thiotepa D. H1-antagonist

 a) i-A, ii-C, iii-D, iv-B

b) i-A, ii-D, iii-B, iv-C

c) i-D, ii-B, iii-A, iv-C

d) i-D, ii-A, iii-C, iv-B




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[1] Vardanyan R, Hruby V. Synthesis of essential drugs. Elsevier; 2006 Mar 10.


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