Cancer : Definition, Types, Etiology, Pathogenesis, Treatment and MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

Cancer : Definition, Types, Etiology, Pathogenesis, Treatment and MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

“Cancer is a disease which is caused due to the uncontrolled division of cell which leads to growth of tumor and reduced activity of immune system.”

TYPES: –

There are basically six types of cancers:

A.] Carcinoma Cancer: This cancer develops in the epithelial layers of the cell which make the external body surface and internal layer of organ of body.

B.] Sarcoma: This type of cancer develops in the connective and supportive cells of muscles, bones, cartilage and fat. Bone cancer is one of the sarcoma cancers and termed as osteosarcoma.

C.] Myeloma: This cancer originates from the plasma cells of bone marrow. Bone marrow is important because it develops antibodies in response to infection. Myeloma is a type of blood cancer.

D.] Leukemia: This group of cancer are grouped within blood cancer. This cancer affects the bone marrow which results in excessive production of WBCs which are immature that are fail to perform their usual action and patient is often prone to infection.

E.] Lymphoma: These are the cancer of lymphatic system. Unlike, the leukemia which affect the blood and are called blood cancer, lymphomas are solid cancer. They may affect  the lymph node at specific site like stomach, brain, intestine, etc.

F.] Mixed Cancer: These have two or more components of the cancer. Some of the examples include carcinosarcoma, adenosquamous carcinoma etc.

ETIOLOGY: –

Cancer usually develops because of change (mutation) in DNA structure of the cell.

Following are the factors responsible for cause of cancer: –

A.] Host factor: This includes intrinsic factor of individual patient and include age, sex, genetic factor, psychological factor and chronic tissue trauma.

B.] Environmental and Life style factors: Environmental and life style factor include geographical location, cigarette smoking, nutrition and occupation.

C.] Infection: Certain organism like viruses and bacteria are associated with certain cancer. Like Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C virus are usually related to hepatocellular carcinoma which increases the risk of liver cancer.

D.] Radiation: Exposure to radioactive material and nuclear fallout can increase the risk of leukemia and other cancer.

E.] Age: Older people have a greater tendency to develop neoplasm from effective lack of control mechanism.

F.] Genetic Factor: Genetic mutation is inherited from the parents. This type of mutation accounts for a small percentage of cancer.

PATHOGENESIS: –

Following is the pathogenesis of cancer:

Chemicals, viruses, radiation etc. causes Acquired and Inherited types  of mutation in body which leads to altered gene expression, which leads to development of protooncogenes and oncogenes which causes uncontrolled cell proliferation and de differentiation and decreased expression of tumor suppressed gene. All this above-mentioned factor leads to the formation of PRIMARY TUMOR, which leads to the production of metalloproteases etc. Then invasion in near by tissues by tumor cells occur which leads to ANGIOGENESIS and METASTASIS which finally leads to the formation of SECONDARY TUMOR.

TREATMENT: –

A.] CYTOTOXIC DRUGS :

1.] ALKYLATING AGENT :-

  • Nitrogen Mustard (Cyclophosphamide)
  • Ethylenimine (Thio – TEPA)
  • Alkyl Sulfonate (Busulfan)
  • Triazine (Temozolomide)
  • Methylhydrazine (Procarbazine)

2.] PLATINUM COORDINATION COMPLEXES

3.] ANTIMETABOLITES

4.] MICROTUBULE DAMAGING AGENT

5.] TOPOISOMERASE – 2 INHIBITORS

6.] TOPOISOMERASE – 1 INHIBITORS

7.] ANTIBIOTICS

B.] TARGETED DRUGS :

1.] TYROSIN PROTEIN KINASE INHIBITORS :-

  • Imatinib
  • Nilotininb

2.] EGF RECEPTOR INHIBITOR :-

  • Gefitinib
  • Erlotinib

3.] ANGIOGENESIS INHIBITORS :-

  • Bevacizumab
  • Sunitinib

4.] PROTEASOME INHIBITOR :-

  • Bortezomib

C.] HORMONAL DRUGS :

1.] GLUCORTICOIDS :-

  • Prednisolone and others

2.] ESTROGENS :-

  • Fosfestrol
  • Ethinylestradiol

3.] SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS :-

  • Tamoxifen

4.] 5-α REDUCTASE INHIBITOR :-

  • Finasteride
  • Dutasteride

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS: –

1.] Cancer is the result of the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cell anywhere in the body?

a. True

b. False

2.] About how many types of cancer are there?

a. More than 100 types

b. Less than 100 types

c. Roughly 50 types

d. None of the above

3.] Across the globe, which is most common type of cancer than kill men?

a. Lung cancer

b. Prostate cancer

c. Penile cancer

d. Oral cancer

4.] Worldwide, which is the most common cancer that kill women?

a. Stomach cancer

b. Ovarian cancer

c. Breast cancer

d. None of the above

5.] Which is the most common form of cancer in all humans?

a. Brain cancer

b. Leukemia

c. Skin cancer

d. Colon cancer

6.] Tobacco causes how many cancer deaths around the world?

a. 13%

b. 22%

c. 30%

d. 41%

7.] Which of the viruses below causes cancer resulting from chronic infection?

a. HSV

b. HPV

c. HBV

d. Both (b) and (c)

8.] Artificial sweeteners are linked to certain kind of cancer?

a. True

b. False

9.] What kind of foods are linked to colon cancer?

a. Processed meats

b. Microwavable food

c. Food will salt substitute

d. Shellfish

10.] Cancer of the blood cell is referred to as?

a. Kaposi sarcoma

b. Basal cell carcinoma

c. Mesothelioma

d. Leukemia

 

SOLUTIONS: –

1.] (a)

2.] (a) More than 100 types

3.] (a) Lung cancer

4.] (c) Breast cancer

5.] (c) Skin cancer

6.] (b) 22%

7.] (d)

8.] (b)

9.] (a) Processed meats

10.] (d) Leukemia

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REFERENCES: –

1.] A Textbook of Pathophysiology  by Dr. C. M. Jangme, Mr. Shivakumar S. Ladde, Mr. R. D. Wadulkar, Dr. B. N. Poul Page No. 13.1 – 13.4.

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