Cell Swelling: Definition, Etiology, Pathogenesis,Mechanism, Morphology and MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

Cell Swelling: Definition, Etiology, Pathogenesis,Mechanism, Morphology and MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

“Cell swelling is an acute reversible change resulting as a response to nonlethal injuries.”

1.] It is also called Hydropic changes which means accumulation of water within the cytoplasm of the cell.

2.] For gross appearance of the affected organ, it is termed as cell swelling.

3.] For cytoplasmic vacuolation it is called vacuolar degeneration.

Cell Swelling - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

This image is taken for educational purpose from sciencedirect.com

ETIOLOGY: –

This is the commonest and earliest form of cell injury from almost all the causes of cell injury.

The common cause of cell selling is as follow:

  • Bacterial toxins
  • Chemical agents
  • Poisons
  • Burns
  • High fever
  • Intravenous administration of hypertonic glucose or saline etc.
  • ATP depletion is primarily responsible for acute cell swelling (Cellular oedema)

MECHANISM OF CELL SWELLING: –

This image is taken for educational purpose from classconnection

PATHOGENESIS: –

Cloudy swelling results from impaired regulation of sodium and potassium at the level of cell membrane. Th is results in intracellular accumulation of sodium and escape of potassium. This, in turn, is accompanied with rapid flow of water into the cell to maintain iso-osmotic conditions and hence cellular swelling occurs. In addition, influx of calcium too occurs.

MORPHOLOGY: –

The affected organs such as kidney, liver, pancreas, or heart muscle is enlarged due to cell swelling.

Microscopically, the structure of kidney after cell swelling are as follows:

1.]  The tubular epithelial cells are swollen and their cytoplasm contains small clear vacuoles and hence the term vacuolar degeneration. These vacuoles represent distended cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.

2.] Small cytoplasmic blebs may be seen.

3.] The nucleus may appear pale.

4.] The microvasculature of the interstitium is compressed due to swollen tubular cells.

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS: –

1.] Cell swelling is an?

a. Reversible cell injury

b. Irreversible cell injury

c. Both (a) and (b)

d. None of the above

2.] Cell swelling is response to?

a. Nonlethal injuries

b. Lethal injuries

c. Both (a) and (b)

d. None of the above

3.] Gross appearance of affected organ is called?

a. Cell swelling

b. Hyaline change

c. Vacuolar degeneration

d. None

4.] Cytoplasmic vacuolation is called?

a. Hyaline change

b. Vacuolar degeneration

c. Cell swelling

d. None

5.] Cell swelling is also called?

a. Hyaline change

b. Hydropic change

c. Both (a) and (b)

d. None of the above

6.] Which of the following are the causes of cell swelling?

a. Bacterial toxins

b. Chemical agents

c. Fever

d. All of the above

7.] Commonest and earliest form of cell injury is called?

a. Cell swelling

b. Cell bursting

c. Hyaline change

d. None

8.] ATP depletion is primarily responsible for cell swelling?

a. True

b. False

9.] Cloudy swelling on cell membrane is due to the impaired regulation of?

a. Sodium

b. Potassium

c. Both (a) and (b)

d. None

10.] Which of the following are the characteristics of kidney after cell swelling?

a. Small cytoplasmic blebs

b. Nucleus appears pale

c. The microvasculature of the interstitium is compressed due to swollen tubular cells.

d. All of the above

 

SOLUTIONS: –

1.] (a) Reversible cell injury

2.] (a) Nonlethal injuries

3.] (a) Cell swelling

4.] (b) Vacuolar degeneration

5.] (b) Hydropic changes

6.] (d)

7.] (a) Cell swelling

8.] (a)

9.] (c)

10.] (d)

 

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REFERENCES: –

1.] Textbook of Pathology by Harsh Mohan; 7th edition; Page no.17.

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