Adenylyl cyclase: cAMP pathway Activation of AC results in intracellular accumulation of second messenger cAM P (Fig. 4.6) which functions mainly through cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The PKA phosphorylates and alters the functi on of many enzymes, ion channels, transporters. […]
Clinical Trials Phases | Differences in various phases of Clinical Trials | Pharmacovigilance Notes & Lecture
Clinical trial phases are steps in the research to determine if an intervention would be beneficial or detrimental to humans and include Phases 0, I, II, III, IV, clinical studies . During Phase 0, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics are determined. Safety […]
Beta-Lactam Antibiotics Semisynthetic Penicillins (part I) (A), MCQs for GPAT, NIPER, Drug inspector and Pharmacist
Beta- Lactam Antibiotics (part I) (B)- Semisynthetic penicillins Semisynthetic penicillins: Semi-synthetic antibiotics are derivatives of natural antibiotics with slightly different but advantageous characteristics. […]
Beta- Lactams Antibiotics- Pencillins, Pencillin_G, Pharmacology, MCQs for GPAT, NIPER, NEET PG, Drug inspector and Pharmacist exam
Beta- Lactams Antibiotics( part -I)- (A)Pencillins Pencillins: Pencillin was the first antibiotic […]
Antimicrobial drugs: General consideration, Classifications of Antibiotics, MCQs for GPAT, NIPER, Drug inspector and pharmacist exam
ANTIMICROBIAL DRUGS- GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Antimicrobial drugs: Antimicrobial drugs are chemical substances of natural or synthetic origin that suppress the growth of, or destroy, micro-organisms including bacteria, fungi, helminths, protozoa and viruses. Antimicrobial drugs include: antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents. Classifications: These drugs […]
Antiemetics, Neuroleptics, Prokinetics used in emesis, MCQS for GPAT, NEET PG,NIPER, Drug inspector and pharmacist exam.
Antiemetics: Antiemetics are a heterogeneous group of drugs used to treat various causes of nausea and vomiting. Different antiemetics act on different receptors, and they may have a peripheral effect, a central effect, or both. Antiemetic drugs can help when nausea […]
Emesis, CTZ, Emetics used in emesis, MCQS for GPAT, NEET PG, NIPER, Drug inspector and pharmacist exam.
Emesis: Vomiting is rarely painful, but never pleasant. Vomiting, also known scientifically as “emesis” and colloquially as throwing up, retching, heaving, or being sick, is the forcible voluntary or involuntary emptying of stomach contents through the mouth or, less often, […]
Diarrhoea, classification of antidiarrhoeal drugs, side effects and uses, MCQS for GPAT, NIPER, Drug inspector and pharmacist exam.
Diarrhoea: Diarrhoea is when your bowel movements become loose or watery. The definition of diarrhoea is passing loose or watery bowel movements 3 or more times in a day. Diarrhoea occurs when the lining of the intestine is unable to […]
Asthma, Antiasthmatic drugs, Pharmacodynamics , Pharmacokinetics, Side effects, Uses and MCQS for GPAT, NIPER, Pharmacist and Drug inspector exam
Bronchial Asthma: It is chronic condition in which a person’s airways become inflamed swell, narrow and produce extra mucus which make difficulty in breathing. Sign and symptoms: Coughing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and wheezing sound (whistling sound in airways). […]
COPD, Classification of COPD, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, Side effects and Medicinal Uses, MCQs for GPAT, NIPER, DRUG INSPECTOR, PHARMACIST EXAMS.
COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a group of lung disease that blocks airflow and make it difficult to breathe. Types of COPD: There are two main types of COPD. Chronic bronchitis: Which involves a long term cough with mucus. Emphysema: […]