Chronic renal failure : Definition, Etiopathogenesis, Symptoms, Treatment And MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

Chronic renal failure : Definition, Etiopathogenesis, Symptoms, Treatment And MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

“Chronic renal failure is a syndrome characterized by progressive and irreversible deterioration of renal function due to the destruction of the renal parenchyma.”

“Major problem in CRF is of acidosis with the development of biochemical azotaemia and clinical uremia syndrome.”

ETIOPATHOGENESIS :-

1.] All the chronic nephropathies can lead to CRF.

2.] The types of disease leading to CRF can generally be classified into two major groups :

(A) DISEASE CAUSING GLOMERULAR PATHOLOGY :

  • Glomerular filtration is being changed due to glomerular destruction and leads to the development of nephrotic syndrome.
  • Primary glomerular pathology the major cause of CRF is chronic glomerulonephritis, usually initiated by various glomerulonephritis.
  • Systemic glomerular pathology, certain conditions originate outside the renal system but induce change in the nephron secondarily.

(B) DISEASE CAUSING TUBULOINTERSTITIAL PATHOLOGY :

  • Damage to tubulointerstitial tissue result in alteration in reabsorption and secretion of important constituent leading to  secretion of large volume of dilute urine.
  • Tubulointerstitial disease can be categorized according to initiating etiology into four groups : Vascular causes, Infectious causes, Toxic causes and Obstructive causes.

SYMPTOMS :-

Symptoms of chronic renal failure are as follow :

  • Fatigue.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Kidney damage.
  • Abnormal heart rhythm.
  • Malaise.
  • Water – electrolyte imbalance.
  • Fluid in the lungs.
  • Kidney failure.
  • Swelling.

Pathogenesis

This figure is take from Mac Master Pathophysiology for education purpose only

 

TREATMENT :-

  • Certain medications are given to the patients suffering from CRF like vitamins, calcium reducer, bone marrow stimulant, diuretics and the dietary supplements.
  • Certain medical procedures like peritoneal dialysis, hemofilteration and dialysis were also given to the patients.
  • In some condition kidney transplant can also be considered as an option.

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION :-

1.] The only purpose of the kidney is to filter blood ?

a. True

b. False

2.] Medically speaking, which term refers to the kidney function ?

a. Hepatic

b. Renal

c. Dialysis

d. Urinary

3.] Common non – specific symptom of chronic kidney disease include ?

a. Increased urination at night

b. Loss of appetite

c. Swelling of hands and feet

d. All of the above

4.] A person can have chronic kidney disease without symptoms ?

a. True

b. False

5.] Which kidney disease is known to be inherited ?

a. End – stage renal disease

b. Protein disease

c. Autoimmune kidney disease

d. Polycystic kidney disease

6.] A doctor who specializes in kidney disease is called a ?

a. Urologist

b. Endocrinologist

c. Nephrologist

d. Immunologist

7.] There are how many stages of kidney disease ?

a. 3

b. 5

c. 6

d. 7

8.] People on dialysis should maintain diet high in ?

a. Protein

b. Fiber

c. Iron

d. Vitamin

9.] Patients with kidney disease must manage fluid intake because fluid is ?

a. Retention can cause swelling and weight gain

b. Affects blood pressure

c. Overload can result in heart trouble

d. All of the above

10.] Which of the following is the leading cause of kidney failure ?

a. Diabetes

b. Infection

c. Injury

d. Smoking

 

SOLUTION :-

1.] (b)

2.] (b) Renal

3.] (d)

4.] (a)

5.] (d) Polycystic kidney disease

6.] (c) Nephrologist

7.] (b) 5

8.] (a) Protein

9.] (d)

10.] (a) Diabetes

 

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REFERENCES :-

1.] Textbook Of Pathology By Harsh Mohan; 7th edition; Page no. 641 – 643.

 

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