Dill Biological Sources, Morphological Features, Chemical Constituents, Medicinal Uses and Questions for Exam

Dill Biological Sources, Morphological Features, Chemical Constituents, Medicinal Uses and Questions for Exam



Synonyms :-

Fructus anethi, Anethum, European dill.

Biological Source :- 

Dill consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum graveolens Linn., belonging to family Umbelliferae.

Geographical Source :-

It is native of the Mediterranean region and Southern Russia. Also grown in Italy, Spain and Portugal.

Cultivation and Collection :- 

Dill is a hardy annual crop which grows ordinarily from 2 to 2.5 feet high. The seeds are sown in early spring in drills 10 inches apart on soil with exhaustive fertility. The seeds are thinned out to leave 8 to 10 inches room each way, and the weeds are removed timely. The plant has more than one stalk and its long, spindle-shaped root, growth is upright, its stems smooth, shiny and hollow and in mid summer it bears flat terminal umbels with numerous yellow flowers. The mowing of the seeds starts as the lower seeds begin; with proper care taken not to loose any of the seeds due to shaking. The loose sheaves are built into stacks of about 20 sheaves, tied together. In hot weather, thrashing is done in the field, spreading the sheaves on a large canvas sheet and beating them. The seeds are finally dried by spreading out on trays in the sun or on moderate heat of a stove with occasional shaking.

Macroscopical Characteristics :-

The drug usually consist of separate, broadly oval mericarps about 4 mm long and 2-3 mm broad. The fruit are very much compressed dorsally, the two central ridges being prolonged into membranous wings while the dorsal ones are inconspicuous. The fruit have an aromatic odour and taste similar to those of caraway.

Microscopical Characteristics :-

Each mericarp has four vittae on the dorsal surface and two on the commissural. The outer epidermis has a striated cuticle and the mesocarp contain lignified reticulate parenchyma. The endosperm is much flattened but otherwise resembles that of caraway.

Chemical Constituents :-

The fruit yields about 3.5% of the essential oil, about 20% of fixed oil and protein. The essential oil is an aromatic liquid consisting of a mixture of paraffin hydrocarbon and 40 to 60% of d-carvone along with D-limonene and other terpenes.

Uses :- 

Dill fruit and oil of Dill possess stimulant, aromatic, carminative, and stomachic, with considerable medicinal value. Oil of Dill is used in mixtures, preparation of Dill Water is used in the flatulence of infants and also as a vehicle for children’s medicine. Oil of Dill is employed for perfuming soaps.

Marketed Product :- 

It is one of the ingredients of the preparation known as woodwards gripe water.


1. How many vittae is present in two mericarp ?

A. 4

B. 2

C. 6

D. 8

2. Dill is belong to family

A. Rubiaceae

B. Liliaceae

C. Umbelliferae

D. Solanaceae

3. Which sentence is false about dill ?

A. Dill has major chemical constituents is d-carvone.

B. Dill has outer epidermis has a striated cuticle.

C. Dill is belong to family umbelliferae.

D. Dill has two vittae in each mericarp.

4. Which of the following is use of dill ?

A. Asthma

B. Whooping cough

C. Soap industry

D. Memory enhance

5. In which of the following marketing product  dill found as ingredient ?

A. Rose water

B. woodwards gripe water

C. Kingfisher water

D. Fennel water

6. How many percentage of essential oil present in dill ?

A. 2.5

B. 3.5

C. 1.5

D. 4.5

7.  Essential oil of Dill is mixture of

A. Paraffin hydrocarbon + d-carvone + D-limonene + terpenes

B. Paraffin hydrocarbon + D-limonene + terpenes

C. Paraffin hydrocarbon + d-carvone  + terpenes

D. + d-carvone + D-limonene + terpenes

8. Which of the following is use of dill ?

A. Soap industry

B. Perfume

C. Carminative

D. All of the above

9. How many centimeter height of dill plant generally we found?

A. 2- 2.5

B. 2.5-3

C. 30-45

D. 45-50

10. Which sentence is false about dill ?

A. Dill fruit has 4-6 mm broad.

B. Dill oil is used as vehicle in liquid preparation

C. It is native of South Russia.

D. Dill fruit have an aromatic odour and taste similar to those of caraway.

Answer key 

1. D

2. C

3. D

4. C

5. B

6. B

7. A

8. D

9. C

10. A

Reference :- 

Textbook of Pharmacognosy and phytochemistry by biren shah & A. K. Seth published by Elsevier ( Pg.No. :-298 )
16 Edition of Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy Text Book ( Pg. No. :-274 )

Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Vol. 6, Issue 2 (2017)


This information is taken only for education purpose.

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