Disorders of Reproductive organs and MCQs For NEET, GPAT, Pharmacist and Staff Nurse Exam

Disorders of Female reproductive system

1. Pelvic Inflammatory disease (PID):- This condition usually occurs due to the sexually transmitted infections. It usually begins as vulvovaginitis (inflammation of vulva and vagina  ) and then spread to the cervix, uterus, uterine tubes and ovaries. complications of PID includes:-

  • infertility due to obstruction of uterine tubes
  • peritonitis ( inflammation of peritoneum)
  • intestinal obstruction due to adhesions between bowel and the uterus.

Causes:- sexual contact with infected person, numerous types of bacteria especially gonorrhoea and chlamydia infections which is sexually transmitted

Treatment:- antibiotics

2. Cervical Carcinoma:- it is a disorder of uterus. These are the dysplastic changes (abnormal changes in the tissues due to the abnormal functioning of the cell). It begins in the deepest layer of cervical epithelium. Dysplasia may progress further and spreads to the whole thickness of the epithelium. Not all dysplasia leads to cancer; but it is always unpredictable that how far the dysplasia will progress. Early detection of the disorder can allow the abnormal tissues to be removed; and the stages are marked according to the extent of the tumor. This disease takes 15-20 years to develop; hence occurs at the age of 50-55 years.

Causes:– it is caused by a virus known as human papillomavirus or HPV

Treatment:– medicines are usually injected directly in veins along with chemotherapy and surgery.

3. Acute salpingitis:- It is the inflammation of the uterine tubes. This can lead to permanent damage of the uterine tubes which can cause obstruction and infertility.

Causes:– infection spread from the uterus, and sometimes from the peritoneal cavity.

Treatment:– antibiotics

4. Ovarian Tumor:- these are mostly benign tumors which occurs at the age of 20-40 years.  Its main cause is genetic mutations. pregnancy and use of contraceptive pills helps to prevent the disease. Most of these arises from the epithelium, some arises from the germ cell of the ovaries and some from the stromal cells.

The ovaries are the common site of metastasis (spreading of cancer from one area to another) from the primary tumors in pelvic organs, breasts, stomach, pancreas and biliary tract.

Causes:– delayed menopause, early start of menarche, smoking, undergoing fertility treatment etc

Treatment:- ovarian surgery, chemotherapy, targeted therapy

5. Mastitis:- This is inflammation of breast and is usually associated with lactation and breast feeding. It may or may not involve infection. Non infective mastitis occurs due to milk stasis in the breast and causes swelling. Infection occurs when the nipple is damaged during suckling, which makes the bacteria enter into the milk ducts.

Causes:– Poor breastfeeding, Blocked milk duct leading to infection, Bacteria in the breast causing infection

Treatment:-  antibiotics, pain-relievers, analgesics

6. Infertility in Females:- This condition is associated with:-

  • blockage of uterine tubes
  • anatomical abnormalities of the uterus
  • endocrine disorders
  • low body weight
  • endometriosis

Disorders of Male Reproductive System

1. Infection of Penis:- Inflammation of the glans can be caused by a specific or non-specific infection. In non-specific infection, lack of personal hygiene is very important factor. If the infection becomes chronic, there may be fibrosis of the foreskin, which can even lead to phimosis.

Causes:- it is caused by a bacteria and sometimes is caused by reactive arthritis.

Treatment:– antibiotics. anti-fungal creams, steroid creams

2. Undescended Testis (cryptorchidism):- During the embryonic life, the testis develop within the abdominal cavity, and then reaches the scrotum before the birth. If they fail to reach the scrotum, and the condition is not corrected; it can cause infertility and also increases the chances of testicular cancer.

Causes:– genetics, maternal health and environmental factors

Treatment:– hormone therapy

3. Testicular tumors:-  These are malignant tumors, and is most common in young men. The tumors tends to remain in the same position for considerable time; but eventually it spreads to the  pelvic and abdominal lymph and blood. Sometime hormone secreting tumors also develop and causes precocious development in boys.

Causes:– Men with undescended testes, hereditary , Previous testicular cancer, abnormality of the testes

Treatment:– target therapy, chemotherapy

4. Benign prostatic enlargement:- It causes urine retention. incomplete emptying of the bladder leads to the infection which spreads upwards and causes pyelonephritis and other complications. It normally occurs in men at the age of 50 and above. The cause for the disorder is unknown.

Causes:- Continued growth of the prostate, Changes in sex hormones, Family history, Diabetes, Heart problems, Obesity, Prostate cancer

Treatment:– alpha blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors

5. Malignant prostatic tumors:- Only 7% of all the cancers in males are prostatic carcinomas. Initially, the tumors causes symptoms like urine obstruction, and it spreads quickly and leads to secondary indications like back pain and anemia.

Causes:– increasing age, men having dark complexion, Family history, Obesity

Treatment:– 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, chemotherapy, anti-androgens

6. Gynecomastia:- This is proliferation of breast tissue in men. It usually affects only 1 breast and is a benign type. Its causes are:-

  • endocrine disorders
  • malnutrition
  • some drugs like spironolactone, digoxin
  • cirrhosis of liver etc.

Causes:- due to altered ratio of estrogens and androgens

Treatment:- in mild cases it can be treated by normal health routine and in severe cases it requires Liposuction Mastectomy

7. Male infertility:- this condition occurs due to endocrine disorders, obstruction of deferent duct, failure of erection, chemotherapy.

Multiple choice questions(MCQs)

1. What is mastitis?
A. inflammation of breasts B. inflammation of uterine tubes
C. proliferation of breast in men D. infection of penis

2. What is the full form of PID?
A. pelvic infection disorder B. penis infection disorder
C. pelvic inflammatory disorder D. penis inflammatory disorder

3. Cervical carcinoma is a disorder of which structure?
A. vagina B. uterus
C. uterine tubes D. ovary

4. What is the cause of infertility in females?
A. blockage of uterine tubes B. endocrine glands disorder
C. abnormality of uterus D. all of the above

5. Match the following causes of the disorder-
a. acute salpingitis 1. HPV
b. PID 2. Damage of nipple during suckling
c. mastitis 3. Chlamydia infection
d. cervical carcinoma 4. Infection spread from uterus

6. What is Gynecomastia?
A. inflammation of breasts B. inflammation of uterine tubes
C. proliferation of breast in men D. infection of penis

7. Which of the following statement is NOT true?
A. cervical carcinoma is a disorder of uterine tubes
B. PID has complication like infertility
C. acute salpingitis is inflammation of uterine tubes
D. ovarian tumors occurs in females

8. Which of the following is the complication of ovarian tumors?
A. infertility due to obstruction of uterine tubes
B. inflammation of peritoneum
C. intestinal obstruction
D. none of the above

9. What is acute salpingitis?
A. inflammation of breasts                                  B. inflammation of uterine tubes
C. proliferation of breast in men                        D. infection of penis

10. Infection of penis can lead to what condition?
A. phimosis                                    B. mastitis
C. testicular tumors                      D. prostatic infection

ANSWERS:-

  1. inflammation of breasts
  2. pelvic inflammatory disorder
  3. uterus
  4. all of the above
  5. a – 4 b – 3 c – 2 d – 1
  6. proliferation of breast in men
  7. cervical carcinoma is a disorder of uterine tubes
  8. none of the above
  9. inflammation of uterine tubes
  10. phimosis

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REFERENCE:- Ross and Wilson-Anatomy and physiology in health and illness;  12th edition; page no.-: 467-470.

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