Ginger Classification, Formation, sources, Chemical Constituents, Identification Test, Adulterants and Uses + MCQ (10)

Ginger Classification, Formation, sources, Chemical Constituents, Identification Test, Adulterants and Uses + MCQ (10)

Ginger

Synonyms :- Adarak, Zingiber Biological Source :- Ginger belongs to oleo gum resin category and is obtained from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Family :- Zingiberaceae Geographical Source :-  It is indigenous to South East Asia and cultivated in Caribbean Island, Jamaica, Taiwan, Africa, Australia, Mauritius and India. In India it is cultivated in nearly all states like Kerala, Assam, Himanchal Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal and Karnataka. Cultivation and Collection :-
  • The basic requirement of soil for the cultivation of ginger is sandy loam, clay or red loam soil. It needs warm humid climate and heavy rainfall.
  • It grows well at an altitude of 1000 to 1500 meter from sea level. The propagation is mainly done from rhizomes in the month of June.
  • The seed rhizome having bud are sowed into soil and supplemented with adequate amount of manures and fertilizers viz. Superphosphate, potash and ammonium sulphate.
  • If rainfall is not enough than proper irrigation arrangements are done. Ginger is ready for harvesting in six months or when leaves become yellowish.
  • Harvesting is done by digging method.
  • Rhizomes are washed properly and then dried. Then rhizomes are scrapped, dried and coated with inert material such as calcium sulphate.
  • The average yield of green ginger is about 1500 kg per hectare.
Morphologicals characteristics :-
  • Colour: Buff or earthy brown.
  • Odour: Characteristic, Agreeable and Aromatic.
  • Taste: Pungent.
  • Size: Rhizomes are 5 to 15 cm in length and 2 to 6 cm in width.
  • Shape: Rhizomes are laterally compressed, bears short, flat, ovate branches and bud at apex.
  • Fracture: Fibrous, short.
Chemical Constituents :-
  • It contains volatile oil, fat, starch, moisture, resinous matter, fibre and inorganic material etc. The oil contains hydrocarbons (monoterpene and sesquiterpene) ,oxygenated derivatives of terpenes and phenyl propanoids. Along with these compounds α–zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, α-curcumene, β-bisabolene, α-farnesene, geranial, citral are also present in the drug.
  • The specific aroma of ginger is due to the presence of volatile oils whereas the pungency and therapeutic action is due to the presence of phenolic ketones which includes gingerols like Zingerone, gingediols, paradols, shogaols, ο-methyl ethers and hexahydrocurcumin.
Medicinal Uses :- It is used as stomachic, carminative, aromatic, stimulant and flavouring agent. Its oil is used in mouth washes, beverages and liquor preparation. Ginger has molluscicidal effects and controls parasitic infections. It also blocks the gastro intestinal reactions and nausea feeling. It causes adsorption of toxins and increases the gastric motility. It is also effective in the control of nausea and vomiting in Hyperemesis gravidarum as well as postoperative nausea and vomiting. Ginger also possess cardiovascular activity, antiplatelet aggregation property, analgesic, antipyretic, antitussive, antibacterial, anthelmintic, fungicidal and antiulcer activity. Limed ginger is the coated ginger with lime which improves its colour and quality. It is mainly done for long storage of ginger. Allied Drugs: Japanese ginger obtained from Z. mioga contains volatile oil which gives bergamot odour and less pungency than the Z. officinale. Galangal rhizome obtained from Aplinia officinarum. Adulterants:
  • It is adulterated with exhausted ginger (detected by determination of water soluble ash value, volatile oil content and extractive values).
  • The ‘Spent ginger’ is also uses for adulteration purpose. In this type, the aroma has beenextracted which yields low quality of ginger.
  • Ginger is often contaminated with capsicum or grains of paradise to enhance the pungency.
MCQ. 1. Ginger is belong to family A. Liliaceae B. Zingiberaceae C. Solanaceae D. Gentianaceae 2. Which of the following is not use of Ginger ? A. Carminative B. Aromatic C. Anti tussive D. Diabetis 3. Which type of soil is required for ginger cultivation ? A. Sandy loam B. Clay C. Red loam D. All of the above 4. Which of the following is false sentence about Ginger ? A. Ginger is belong to family zingiberaceae. B. Gingerol is responsible for pungent nature in ginger. C. Hydrolysis of Gingerol it is produces shogaol D. Plant part use in ginger is root. 5. Which of the following is allied drug of Ginger ? A. Z. Officinale B. Z. Mioga C. A and B D. None of the above 6. Synonyms of Ginger A. Polygala B.  Panax C. Arjun D. Zingiber 7. Which of the following is false about Ginger macroscopic Characteristics ? A. Ginger has buffy and brown colour. B. Ginger rhizome are 2 to 8 cm long. C. It has fibrous and short fracture. D. Ginger rhizome are 5 to 15 cm long. 8. Which Chemical are use to remove pungency of Ginger ? A. 0.1 N NaOH B. 0.2 N NaOH C. 0.3 N NaOH D. 0.4 N NaOH 9. Which is use of Ginger ? A. Flavouring agent B. antibacterial C. carminative D. All of the above 10. On hydrolysis of Gingerol which product is produces ? A. Shogaol B. Paradols C. Zingerone D. All of the above For More Standard and Quality Question Bank you can Join Our Test Series Programme for GPAT, NIPER JEE, Pharmacist Recruitment Exam, Drug Inspector Recruitment Exams, PhD Entrance Exam for Pharmacy Participate in Online FREE  GPAT  TEST: CLICK HERE   Participate in Online FREE  Pharmacist  TEST: CLICK HERE  Participate in Online FREE  Drug Inspector  TEST: CLICK HERE  Participate in CSIR NET JRF Mock Test Participate GATE Mock Test Answer Key 1. B 2. D 3. D 4. D 5. C 6. D 7. B 8. A 9. D 10. D Reference :- 16 Edition of Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy Text Book ( Pg. No. :- 289)

Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): A review of recent research

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0278691507004243 This information is taken only for education purpose.  

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