Hypothyroidism : Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

Hypothyroidism : Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

‘’ Hypothyroidism is a clinical and biochemical state caused due to the inadequate production of thyroid hormone.’’

1.] The clinical manifestation of hypothyroidism depends upon the age when it first appears.

CAUSES OF HYPOTHYROIDISM :-

Causes of hypothyroidism are as follows :

1.] Insufficient thyroid parenchyma :

  • Developmental
  • Radiation injury
  • Surgical ablation
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

2.] Interference with thyroid hormone synthesis :

  • Idiopathic primary hypothyroidism
  • Heritable biosynthetic defects
  • Iodine deficiency
  • Drugs
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

3.] Suprathyroidal :

  • Pituitary lesions reducing TSH secretion
  • Hypothalamic lesions that reduces thyrotropin – releasing hormone delivery.

SYMPTOMS OF HYPOTHYROIDISM :-

The most common symptoms of hypothyroidism are as follows :

  • Patient suffer from fatigue, depression and constipation.
  • Felling cold and dry skin.
  • Weight gain due to decreased or slow metabolism.
  • Muscles weakness.
  • There will be decreased in heartbeat and sweating.
  • Person will have increased blood cholesterol.
  • Person will have pain and stiffness in your joints.
  • Thinning of hair due to hormonal changes in body.
  • Women will have fertility problems and irregular mensuration due to hormonal changes in body.
  • there will be stiffness muscle i.e; person will not be able to move properly.
  • Hoarseness.

Hypothyroidism:A Growing Complicationof Cancer Treatment

The above image is taken for education purpose only from cancernetwork.com

TREATMENT OF HYPOTHYROIDISM :-

  • To treat the hypothyroidism levothyroxine ( Levothyroid, Levoxyl ) is given to the patient. It copies the function of thyroid hormone as it is the synthetic medium to compensate the less secretion of thyroid hormone.

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS :-

1.] Hypothyroidism is seen in ?

a. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

b. Grave’s disease

c. Toxic multinodular goiter

d. Struma ovarii

2.] What are the two main hormones secreted by thyroid gland ?

a. T3

b. T4

c. TSH

d. Both (a) and (b)

3.] Inadequate release of thyroid hormone in body causes ?

a. Hypothyroidism

b. Hyperthyroidism

c. Goiter

d. None of these

4.] The symptoms of hypothyroidism are ?

a. Dry skin and hair

b. Depression

c. Joint and muscle pain

d. All of the above

5.] How is hypothyroidism treated ?

a. With radiation

b. With surgery

c. With a synthetic hormone

d. The condition can’t be treated

6.] The most common thyroid disorder is ?

a. Hypothyroidism

b. Riedel’s thyroiditis

c. Hyperthyroidism

d. Thyrocele

7.] Hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis ?

a. True

b. False

8.] One of the symptom of hypothyroidism is ?

a. Fatigue

b. Intolerance to cold

c. Weight gain

d. All of the above

9.] In women, hypothyroidism can affect pregnancy by ?

a. Reducing the chance of getting pregnant

b. Boosting the chance of getting pregnant

c. Making miscarriage more likely

d. Making labor and delivery more difficult

10.] A person with untreated hypothyroidism may also have ?

a. High cholesterol

b. Low blood pressure

c. Low blood sugar

d. None of the above

 

 SOLUTION :-

1.] (a) Hashimoto’s disease

2.] (d)

3.] (a) Hypothyroidism

4.] (d)

5.] (c) With a synthetic hormone

6.] (a) Hypothyroidism

7.] (a)

8.] (d)

9.] (a) Reducing the chance of getting pregnant

10.] (a) High cholesterol

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REFERENCES :-

1.] Textbook Of Pathology By Harsh Mohan; 7th edition; Page no. 793 – 794.

2.] Robbin’s Basic Pathology; 5th edition; Page no. 1124 – 1125.

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