What is animal tissue culture?
Animal tissue culture involves the growth and maintenance of animal cells Invitro inappropriate nutrition media and growth conditions. Thus, when cells are grown and maintained under laboratory conditions, the process is known as cell culture.
Basics terms used in cell culture
Organ culture: the term refers to the tissue that remains the same as in-vivo histological features is known as organ culture. Cell Culture: the term refers to the disaggregated cells obtained from the original tissue or cell line. Histotypic culture: the term refers to the cell culture for their reaggregation to form a tissue-like structure Organotypic culture: the term refers to the recombination of different types of cells to form more defined tissue or organ Primary culture: the term refers to the culture freshly prepared from isolated tissue or cells from an organism Cell line: the term refers to, when the primary cultures are subcultured which results in cell lines. Continuous cell lines are the indefinite growth of the cells in subsequent sub-culturing. Whereas, finite cell lines refers to cell death after multiple subcultures. Minimum laboratory requirement for animal cell culture technology
- Infrastructure: animal house, microbial laboratory, clean and quite sterile area, preparation facilities, storage facilities for glassware, chemicals, liquids, and small equipment.
- Equipment: equipment like Laminar flow, sterilizer, CO2 cylinder, refrigerator, ware purifier, pipette washer, deep washing sink, liquid nitrogen freezer, inverted microscope, balance, a slow cooling device for freezing cells, centrifuge are the minimum requirement for animal cell tissue culture laboratory.
- Culture vessels: vessels such as Petri dish, flasks, multiwell plates, stirrer bottles are generally used for cell culture. They are made of glass or disposable plastics such as polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polycarbonate, mentinex, and thermonex. The material used in culture techniques is important because the surface of the vessel serves as a substrate for cells to grow.
- Contamination in tissue culture laboratories: several routes like materials i.e. glassware, pipettes, types of equipment like incubators, refrigerators, laminar flow hood, reagents like media, solutions are major factors responsible for the contamination.
- Aseptic condition: proper aseptic conditions are maintained to reduce contamination from different microorganisms and viruses.
- Sterilization: Dry heat sterilization at 160oC for one hour, moist heat of autoclave at 121oC for 15-20 mins, and sterilization by a filter of 0.1-0.2 µm size is used to kill microorganisms, and destroying spores.
Advantages of Animal tissue culture
- Cultured cells are easy to store for long period in liquid nitrogen
- Cell categorization is easy for immunological and cytological studies
- Biological studies can be easily done using cell cultures
- Cell culture techniques can reduce the use of animals in various studies.
- Technical skill and expertise is required to carry tissue culture techniques
- The cost factor for tissue culture production is very high
- It is not easy to control environmental factors like pH. Temperature, dissolved gases, etc.
- Disposal of biohazards is not easy
- Genetic instability is seen in continuous cell lines
Application of animal tissue culture
- Intracellular activities like cell cycle, cell differentiation, etc can be studied
- Studies on hormonal receptors, signal transduction can be done using cell culture
- Cell cultures can be used to evaluate environmental interactions like genotoxicity, mutagenesis, etc
- Cell culture can be used for the production of vaccines e.g. malaria vaccine
- Production of high-value therapeutics such as plasminogen, interferons, blood clotting factors, hormones, monoclonal antibodies, and erythropoietin can be done using animal tissue culture.
The risk associated with Animal tissue culture
|Maintenance ricks||leakage of disposals, age, and condition of the equipment|
|Personnel risks||lack of interest and concentration and inadequate training|
|Physical risks||Intense cold, electric shocks, and fire|
|Chemical risks||Exposure to toxic substances like poisons, carcinogens, mutagen, irritants, and allergens|
|Biohazards||Viruses, pathogenic organisms, culture cells, and DNA|
|Radioisotope risks||Energy emission its penetrations and ionization|
1. What is animal tissue culture? a) Growth and maintenance of animal cells b) Growth and selling of animal cells c) Only maintenance of animal cells d) All 2.Culture freshly prepared from isolated tissue is known as _____ a) Organ culture b) Primary culture c) Cell line d) Histotypic culture 3.Recombination of different types of cells to form more defined tissue or organ is known as __________________ a) Organotypic culture b) Primary culture c) Secondary culture d) Cell line 4. ______________is the primary equipment required for animal tissue culture laboratories a) Glasswares b) Laminar flow c) Sterilizers d) All 5. The material used in culture techniques is important because the surface of the vessel serves as a substrate for cells to grow. a) True b) False 6. The following are methods of sterilization EXCEPT: a) Dry heat sterilization b) Autoclaving c) Sterilization by filters d) Laminar airflow 7. The following are the routes of contamination in tissue culture laboratories EXCEPT: a) Incubators b) Refrigerators c) Laminar flow hood d) Autoclave 8. _____________is the advantage of animal tissue culture a) It is cost-effective b) No skilled personnel is required c)Tissue cultures can be stored for a long time d) Maintenance of environmental conditions is easy 9. _________________is one of the limitation of animal tissue culture a) Disposal of biohazards is not easy b) Cultured cells are not easy to store c) Both d) None 10.Exposure to carcinogens is a contributing factor for _________ a) Chemical risk b) Biohazards c) Physical risk d) Personnel risk Answer Key
Participate GATE Mock Test Reference
- U. Satyanarayana, biotechnology, 1st e.d. Kolkata, books & allied (p) ltd publishers, 2005 page: 407-414