CAUSATIVE AGENT : Malaria is caused by the protozoa. Malaria is caused by one or by the combination of four species of plasmodium :
- Plasmodium vivax
- Plasmodium falciparum (malignant malaria)
- Plasmodium ovale
- Plasmodium malarial
PATHOGENESIS AND LIFE CYCLE :
Malaria sporozites are released into the blood with the bite of an infected mosquito and within a minute it attach to and invade the liver cell. Now, these parasites reproduces asexually in liver cells, burst the cell and release into the blood this cycle occur in human host. Now parasite reproduces asexually in red blood cell and causing cycles of fever and other symptoms. Released parasite infect new red blood cell. In, sexual stage (gametocytes) develop in red blood cells. Female mosquito take up the gametocyte with the blood meal. Now, the fertilization and development take place in the mosquito’s gut. Mature infective stage (sporozites) escape from gut and migrate to the mosquito salivary gland. When the mosquito bites another human, sporozites are injected with bite.
The above image is taken for education purpose only from niaid.nih.gov
Following are the symptoms of malaria :
- Headache, nausea and vomiting
- Very high fever and severe chill
- Abdominal pain
- Severe sweating
- Anemia and muscle pain
- Diarrhea with bloody stools
The above image is taken for education purpose only from verywellhealth.com
ANTIMALARIA DRUGS CLASSIFICATION
Following are the malarial drugs administrated to the infected person :
- Chloroquine (300 mg base orally once a week)
- Hydroxychloroquine (310 mg base orally once a week)
- Mefloquine (228 mg base orally once a week)
- Doxycycline (100 mg orally daily)
ANTI MALERIAL DRUGS MECHANISM OF ACTION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS :-
1.] Mosquito responsible for malaria transmission ?
a. Aedes aegypti
b. Aedes albopictus
2.] How many people are at risk of malaria in world ?
a. 1.2 million
b. 1.2 billion
c. 3.2 billion
d. 3.2 million
3.] Malaria can be lethal ?
4.] There is a vaccine against malaria ?
5.] The infectious agent that causes malaria is known as which of the following ?
a. Protozoan parasite
b. Bacterial parasite
c. Viral parasite
d. Fungal parasite
6.] Which of the following are not antimalarial compound ?
7.] Which of the following statement is correct ?
a. Malaria is neglected tropical disease
b. If you get malaria once, you won’t get it again
c. Malaria is quit often endemic in poorer region of the world
d. All of the above
8.] Black water fever is special manifestation of malaria caused by ?
a. P. falciparum
b. P. malarial
c. P. ovale
d. P. vivax
9.] Malaria is spread by ?
a. Inhaling bad air
b. Drinking unclear water
c. Eating roadside food
d. Bite of a mosquito
10.] Symptoms of malaria are ?
d. All of the above
1.] (c) Anopheles
2.] (c) 3.2 billion
5.] (a) Protozoan parasite
6.] (e) Penicillin
7.] (c) Malaria is quite often endemic in poorer region of the world
8.] (a) P. falciparum
9.] (d) Bite of a mosquito
1.] Textbook of Pathology By Harsh Mohan; 7th edition; Page no. 179 – 180.
2.] Robbin’s Basic Pathology; 5th edition; Page no. 362 – 363.