Myxoedema : Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Clinical Features, Treatment And MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

Myxoedema : Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Clinical Features, Treatment And MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

‘’The term myxoedema is applied to hypothyroidism in the older child or in the adults.’’

1.] The term myxoedema suggests non – pitting oedema due to the accumulation of hydrophilic mucopolysaccharides in the ground substances of dermis and other tissues.

CAUSES OF MYXOEDEMA :-

There are many causes of myxoedema, but first two are the most common causes :

  • Ablation (surgical removal of body tissues) of the thyroid by surgery or radiation.
  • Autoimmune (lymphocytic) thyroiditis (termed primary idiopathic myxoedema).
  • Endemic or sporadic goiter (it is a benign enlargement of the thyroid gland in a euthyroid subject living in an iodine – sufficient area).
  • Hypothalamic – pituitary lesions.
  • Thyroid cancer.
  • Prolonged administration of anti thyroid drugs.
  • Mild developmental anomalies and dysharmonogenesis.

SYMPTOMS OF MYXOEDEMA :-

1.] Myxoedema is a very critical condition. Symptoms of myxoedema may include :

  • Patient may have intolerance towards cold and may also experience tiredness and shock.
  • Swelling in face, legs and tongue.
  • Due to slow metabolism person can notice a weight gain.
  • Person may have drooping eyes (i.e; the border of the upper eyelid fall to a lower position then normal).
  • Due to a gain in weight person may may have difficulty in breathing or decreased breathing.
  • Person may experience confusion, apathy (lack of emotions, feeling, interest or concern about something), depression and psychosis, coma.
  • Constipation
  • Goiter
  • Low body temperature

3.] There will be low O2 and high CO2 level in blood in Myxoedema.

CLINICAL FEATURES OF MYXOEDEMA :-

  • The initiation of myxoedema is very slow and a fully developed clinical syndrome may appear after several years of hypothyroidism.
  • The striking features of myxoedema are cold intolerance, mental and physical lethary, constipation, slowing of speech and intellectual function, puffiness of face, loss of hair and altered texture of skin

TREATMENT OF MYXOEDEMA :-

Myxoedema is a disease which is caused due to hypothyroidism i.e; low production of thyroid hormone. It can be treated by giving synthetic version of thyroid hormone to control the T4 symptom and i.e; levothyroxine.

In case of myxoedema coma in a person antibiotics, steroid treatment and breathing support are of great help.

In patient suffering from myxoedema having high level of CO2 in blood breathing assistance is given to the patient.

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS :-

1.] Myxoedema coma is a severe form of hypothyroidism that commonly occur in which of the following ?

a. Patient with untreated hypothyroidism who are subjected to an external stress

b. Male patients with hypothyroidism and excessive weight loss

c. Both (a) and (b)

d. None of the above

2.] Myxoedema is caused by ?

a. Hypothyroidism

b. Hyperthyroidism

c. Both (a) and (b)

d. None of the above

3.] Which of the following are not the cause of myxoedema coma ?

a. Illness

b. Sedatives

c. Iodine toxicity

d. Thyroidectomy

4.] Signs and symptoms of myxoedema coma include all of the following except ?

a. Fever

b. Blood glucose level greater than 350

c. Goiter

d. All of the above

5.] Hypothyroidism in adults causes ?

a. Myxoedema

b. Cretinism

c. Goiter

d. Diabetes mellitus

6.] Myxoedema can lead to ?

a. Low O2 and high CO2 level in blood

b. High O2 and low CO2 level in blood

c. High K+ and low Na+ level in blood

d. None of the above

7.] Following are the symptoms of myxoedema ?

a. Weight gain

b. Psychosis

c. Drooping eyes

d. All of the above

8.] Reduced mobility, coma, low body temperature are the symptoms of ?

a. Myxoedema

b. Cretinism

c. Hyperthyroidism

d. None of the above

9.] The term “ablation” means ?

a. Removal of cells

b. Surgical removal of body tissues

c. Both (a) and (b)

d. None of the above

10.] Ablation and autoimmune thyroiditis are the causes of ?

a. Cretinism

b. Myxoedema

c. Hyperthyroidism

d. Grave’s disease

 

SOLUTIONS :-

1.] (a) Patient with untreated hypothyroidism who are subjected to an external stress

2.] (a) Hypothyroidism

3.] (c) Iodine toxicity

4.] (d)

5.] (a) Myxoedema

6.] (a) Low O2 and high CO2 level in blood

7.] (d)

8.] (a) Myxoedema

9.] (b) Surgical removal of body tissues

10.] (b) Myxoedema

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REFERENCES :-

1.] Textbook Of Pathology By Harsh Mohan; 7th edition; Page no. 794.

2.] Robbin’s Basic Pathology; 5th edition; Page no. 1125.

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