Neem oil Biological Sources, Morphological Features, Chemical Constituents, Uses and MCQ for GPAT

Neem oil Biological Sources, Morphological Features, Chemical Constituents, Uses and MCQ for GPAT

Neem

  1. Biological Source :- 
  • Neem consists of almost all the part of the plant which are used as drug of Azadirachta indica.
  • It is belong to family Meliaceae
  • It is also known as margosa, indian Lilac and Azadirachta indica.

      2. Geographical source :-

  • India is native of Azadirachta.
  • It is also cultivated in Nepal Pakistan Bangladesh and Sri-Lanka.
  • Neem is a fast growing tree that can reach a height of 15-20 m, rarely to 35-40m. It is evergreen.

 3. Macroscopic properties :-

  •  Macroscopy of leaf :-
  • Apex :- Ovate – Lanceolate
  • Base :- Unequal
  • Colour :- Smooth and dark green
  • Odour :- Typical
  • Taste :- Bitter

      4. Microscopic Characteristics of  leaf :-

  • Dorsiventral Leaf
  • Covering and glandular trichome on both surface
  • Glandular trichomes are short, unicellular stalk and bi cellular or Uni cellular head
  • Anomocytic Stomata
Parameters Range Average
Vein islet Number 10-16 14
Palisade ratio 3-3.5 3.0
Stomatal Index 8-8.2 8.0

 

     5. Chemical constituents :-

  • Various parts of the plant is used for various therapeutic  and commercial purposes due to presence of different type of chemical in different parts of this plant. Some of them being :
  • Leaf :- quercetin, nimbosterol, nimbin
  • Flower :- nimbosterol, kaempferol
  • Bark :-  nimbin, nimbidin, nimbosterol
  • Seeds :- Azadirachtin,Azadiradione, nimbin, vepinin
  • Azadirachtin :- Provide repellant, anti hormonal and anti feedant properties.
  • Nimbin :- Provide anti  -inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-histamine, and anti fungal properties.
  • Nimbidin :- Provide anti bacterial, anti ulcer and anti fungal properties.
  • Nimbidol :- Provide anti tubercular, anti protozoa and anti pyretic properties.
  • Sodium nimbinate :- provide Diuretic and Spermicidal properties.
  • Gedunin :- Provide vasodilator, anti malaria and anti fungal properties.
  • Quercetin :- Provide anti protozoal, anti oxidant and anti inflammatory properties.

 6. Pharmacopoeial Standards :- 

Foreign Matter Nil
Total Ash 9.7%
Acid Insoluble Ash 1.7%
Water soluble Ash 7.7%
Alcohol soluble extractive 8.18%
Water soluble extractive 13.5%

      7. Uses :- 

  • All parts of neem tree used as anthelmintic, anti fungal, anti diabetic, anti bacterial, anti viral,   contraceptive and sedative.
  • Oil of neem used in soap, shampoo,balms and Cream as well as toothpaste.
  • Neem gum is used as a bulking agent and for the preparation of special purpose food (For diabetic).
  • A decoction prepared from Neem roots is ingested to relieve fever in traditional Indian medicine.

    8. MCQ of Neem for Gpat, Niper and other competitive exam of pharmacy

1.  Which of the following compound as Spermicidal property ?

A. Nimbidol

B. Azadirachtin

C. Sodium nimbinate

D. Oleanolic acid

2. Margosa is belong to family

A. Meliaceae

B. Liliaceae

C. Solanaceae

D. Gentiaceae

3. Which sentence is false about neem ?

A. Neem gum is used as a bulking agent and for the preparation of special purpose food.

B. Neem has Dorsiventral Leaf.

C. Neem is a fast growing tree that can reach a height of 15-20 m.

D. Nimbidin has anti tubercular property.

4. What is average of stomatal Index in neem leaf ?

A. 7

B. 8

C. 6

D. 5

5. Which type of stomata is seen in neem leaf ?

A. Rubiaceous stomata

B. Sunan Stomata

C. Anomocytic Stomata

D. Paracytic Stomata

6. Which of the following sentence is True about Neem Microscopic Characteristics ?

A. It has calcium oxalate

B. It has anomocytic Stomata.

C. It has acicular leaf.

D. It has paracytic stomata.

7. Match the following parameters with its standard

i. Stomatal Index     A. 3

ii. Vein islet Number  B 8

iii. Palisade ratio      C. 14

(A) i →A ii → C iii → B

(B) i →B ii →C iii →A

(C) i →C ii →B iii→ A

(D) i→ A ii→ C iii →B

8. Which of the following is not use of neem ?

A. Bulking agent

B. Anti fungal

C. Anti diabetic

D. Anti malarial agent

9. Which of the following chemical constituents is present in leaf ?

A. Nimbosterol

B. Nimbin

C. Quercetin

D. All of the above

10. Which of the following property are provided by nimbidol ?

A. Anti Protoza

B. Anti tubercular

C. A and B

D. None of the above

Answer Key :-

1. C

2. A

3. D

4. B

5. C

6. B

7. B

8. D

9. D

10. C

Reference :-

16 Edition of Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy Text Book ( Pg. No. :- 433)

An overview of Neem (Azadirachta indica) and its potential impact on health 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1756464620303959#!

This information is taken from only education purpose.

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