Solanum Xanthocarpum Biological Sources, Morphology, Chemical Constituents, Adulterants and Uses + MCQ (10)

Solanum Xanthocarpum Biological Sources, Morphology, Chemical Constituents, Adulterants and Uses + MCQ (10)

Solanum Xanthocarpum

Synonym:-

Kantakari, Bhoringani, Katali, Febrifuge Plant

Biological source:-

It is consists of whole plant of Solanum Xanthocarpum.

Family :- 

Solanaceae

Geographical Source  :- 

In India mostly seen in Utter Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Mysore, Bihar, Punjab, etc. It is also found in Ceylon and Malacca through South-East Asia, Malaya, tropical Australia, and Polynesia.

Cultivation and Collection :- 

It mainly grows in rich loamy soils and well-drained sandy soils with a PH ranging from 7.0-8.0. Temperature ranging from 21 to 270 C is supportive for growth and reproduction. The seed is raised from the crop.The seeds measure about 2.5 mm diameter and are in yellowish-brown color.These seeds have no latency period. Germination range is about 60-70 %.The Germination period is around 10-16 days.It is generally grown in March to April, fruits from May to June. It grows mainly in hot and dry places, height about 2-3 m, Fruits are white or yellow colored, measured about 1-3 cm, the stem is like zigzag branches are plentiful, bases are somewhat woody.

Morphology :- 

1. Root:-

10-45 cm in long, few mm to two cm in diameter, almost cylindrical and tapering, bearing a number of fine longitudinal and few transverse wrinkles with occasional scars or a few lenticels and small rootlets, transversely smoothened surface shows a thin bark and wide compact cylinder of wood; fracture, short; taste, bitter; stem herbaceous, prickly with prominent nodes and internodes, green when fresh, young branches, covered with numerous hairs, mature ones glabrous, furrows more prominent in young stem appearing almost circular towards basal region, stem pieces 8-10 mm thick of variable length, external surface light green, when dry, surface, yellowish-green and smooth, transversely smoothened surface shows a very thin bark and prominent wood, centre shows a large and distinct, pith, mature and dry stem often with hollow pith; fracture short to slightly fibrous;

2. Leaves:-

Petiolate, estipulate, ovate oblong or elliptic, sinuate or sub-pinnatified, sub-acute hairy; 4-12.5 cm long and 2-8 cm in wide, green; veins and midrib full with sharp prickles; odour and taste not distinct.

3. Flower:-

Ebracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, pentamsrous, regular, complete, bright blue or bluish purple; calyx- persistent, gamosepalous, tube short, Globose, linear- lanceolate acute, hairy, 0.5-1.3 cm long and densely prickly; corolla-gamopetalous, lobes deltoid, acute, hairy; 1-2 cm long and purple in colour stamens 5, epipetalous, basifixed, filament short 1-1.5 mm long; anther oblong lanceolate, 0.7-0.8 cm long; ovary superior, ovoid, glabrous, bilocular with axile Placentation having numerous ovules. Fruit berry, globular, measuring 0.8-1.0 cm in diameter, surrounded by persistent calyx at base unripe fruits variegated with green and white strips; ripe fruits show different yellow and white shade

4. Seed:

Circular, flat, numerous embedded in a fleshy Mesocarp, about 0.2 cm in diameter, glabrous; taste, better and acrid.

Chemical Constitution :- 

It contain steroidal alkaloids like solanidine, solamergine, Beta-solamergine, solasonine.

It also contains sterols like cycloartenol, Norcarpesterol and cholesterol.

Kantakari root Standard :- 

API Standards Kantakari Root
Loss on Drying 6.34%
Total Ash 

value

Not more than 9% 4.40%
Acid insoluble 

ash

Not more than 3% 0.599%
Water soluble 

ash

3.5%
pH 4.49
Specific 

gravity

1.009

Uses :-

  • Powder is anti tussive and expectorant.
  • Fatty oil seeds has anti fungal activities.
  • It has anti pyretic activities.
  • Solasodin has anti spermatogenic hypocholesterolaemic, anti atherosclerosis activity.

Marketed Product :- 

  • Kantakari Avaleha :- Used In Treating Asthma
  • Vyaghrihari Taki
  • Khadiradi Gutika :- Used In Treating Cough.

MCQ

1. Kantakari belong to family

A. Liliaceae

B. Apocynaceae

C. Zingiberaceae

D. Solanaceae

2. Which of the following is synonymous of Solanum Xanthocarpum ?

A. Devil Dung

B. Febrifuge

C. Strychnose nux

D. Cuprea bark

3. Germination Time of Solanum Xanthocarpum Seed ?

A. 10-16 days

B. 5-8 days

C. 2-4 days

D. 20-25 days

4. Solanum xanthocarpum belong to which class of alkaloids

A. Tropane

B. Quinoline

C. Steroids

D. Purine

5. Match of the following

i. Seed.           A. 4-12.5 cm

ii. Flower.     B. 0.2 cm

iii. Leaves.     C. 10-45 cm

iv. Root.          D. 1.2 cm

A. A→ii B→i C→iii D →iv

B.A→ii B→iv C→i D →iii

C.A→ii B→iii C→i D →iv

D.A→ii B→i C→iii D →iv

6. Which of the following is not use of Solanum xanthocarpum

A. Anti Tussive

B. Anti Spermatogenic

C. Anti Fungal

D. Anti Viral

7. Which of the following is market products of Solanum xanthocarpum

A. Kantakari Avaleha

B. Kantakari paka

C.Kantakari jar

D.Kantakari tablet

8. Which of the following is not chemical constituents of solanum xanthocarpum ?

A. Solasonine

B.Beta-solamergine

C.Solasonine

D. Alfa- solamergine

9. Which of the following is false about solanum xanthocarpum ? 

A. Solanum xanthocarpum is belong to steroidal alkaloids.

B.  Solanum xanthocarpum is use to treatment of asthma.

C. Solanum xanthocarpum has beta solamergine has major chemical constituents.

D. Solanum xanthocarpum seed  take  20 days for germination.

10. Total Ash value in Kantakari Root

A. 1.40

B. 2.40

C. 4.40

D. 3.40

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Answer Key :-

1. A

2. B

3. D

4. C

5. D

6. D

7. A

8. D

9. D

10. C

Reference :- 

HPTLC Analysis of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. and Wendl., a Siddha Medicinal Herb

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/aps/2018/8546306/

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