Haemolytic Anemia: Definition, Classification, Symptoms, Treatment and MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

Haemolytic Anemia: Definition, Classification, Symptoms, Treatment and MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

“Haemolytic anemia are the anemia which results in the increased rate of red blood cell destruction.”

CLASSIFICATION: –

The premature destruction of red blood cell in haemolytic anaemia may occur at either of the following two sites: –

  • Firstly, the red blood cell undergoes lysis in the circulation and releases their content into the plasma (intravascular haemolysis). In these cases, the plasma hemoglobin rises and part of it may be excreted in the urine (Haemoglobinuria).
  • Secondly, the red cells are taken up by cells of the RE system where they are destroyed and digested (Extravascular haemolysis). In extravascular haemolysis, plasma hemoglobin level is, barely raised.

Haemolytic anemia are broadly classified into two main categories: –

  • Acquired haemolytic anaemia caused by a variety of extrinsic environmental factors (i.e., extracorpuscular).
  • Hereditary haemolytic anemia are usually the result of intrinsic red blood cell defects (i.e., intracorpuscular).

 

CAUSES: –

Following are the causes of Haemolytic anaemia:

  • Inherited condition, such as sickle cell anaemia and thalassaemia.
  • Stressors such as infection, drugs, snake or spider venom or certain food.
  • Toxins from advanced liver or kidney disease.
  • Inappropriate attack by the immune system.
  • Enlarged spleen.

SYMPTOMS: –

Following are the symptoms of haemolytic anaemia:

  • Weakness
  • Very dark colour urine
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Abnormal pale colour of skin
  • Yellowish skin
  • Fever
  • Jaundice

TREATMENT: –

Following are the treatment given to a Haemolytic patient:

  • Blood transfusion
  • Surgery
  • Bone marrow transplant
  • Plasmapheresis
  • Stem cell transplant
  • Corticosteroid medicine

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS: –

1.] Haemolytic disruption of erythrocytes involves?

a. An alteration in the erythrocyte membrane

b. A defect of the hemoglobin molecule

c. An antibody coating the erythrocyte

d. Physical trauma

2.] What is intravascular haemolysis?

a. Destruction of RBCs outside the circulatory blood

b. Destruction of RBCs within the circulatory blood

c. Only (a)

d. None of the above

3.] What is extravascular haemolysis?

a. Destruction of RBCs outside the circulatory blood

b. Destruction of RBCs within the circulatory blood

c. Only (b)

d. None of the above

4.] Which of the following test is not useful in determining erythrocyte destruction?

a. Reticulocyte count

b. Total leukocyte

c. Serum haptoglobin

d. Unconjugated bilirubin

5.] Acquired haemolytic anaemia can be caused by?

a. Chemicals or drugs

b. Infectious organism

c. Antibody reaction

d. All of the above

6.] The infectious microorganism directly associated with haemolytic uremia syndrome is?

a. Pasteurella tularaemia

b. E. coli O157-H7

c. Staphylococcus aureus

d. Clostridia botulinum

7.] Haemolytic anaemia is characterized by all except?

a. Thrombocytopenia

b. Increased erythropoietin levels

c. Increased reticulocytes

d. Erythroid hyperplasia

8.] The hematological disorders benefited by splenectomy is?

a. Thalassemia

b. Hereditary spherocytosis

c. Only (a)

d. None of the above

9.] The common clinical feature of haemolytic anaemia is?

a. Pica

b. Jaundice

c. Renal stones

d. Neurological symptoms

10.] The feature not seen in haemolytic anaemia is?

a. Increased urobilinogen in urine

b. Increased serum bilirubin

c. Decreased iron stores

d. None of the above

 

SOLUTIONS –

1.] (a) An alteration in the erythrocyte membrane

2.] (b) Destruction of RBCs within the circulatory blood

3.] (a) Destruction of RBCs outside the circulatory blood

4.] (b) Total leukocyte

5.] (d)

6.] (b) E. coli O157-H7

7.] (a) Thrombocytopenia

8.] (b) Hereditary spherocytosis

9.] (b) Jaundice

10.] (c) Decreased iron stores

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REFERENCES: –

1.] Textbook of Pathology by Harsh Mohan; 7th edition; Page no.286 – 301.

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