Stramonium: biological source,morphological features, Medicinal uses and MCQs

Stramonium: biological source,morphological features, Medicinal uses and MCQs


1. Biological sources:

• The botanical name of stramonium is Datura stramonium.
• It is also known as devil’s snare and jimsonweed.
• It belongs to the solanaceae family.
• The biological source are dried leaves and flowering tops.

2. Morphological features:

• It is an annual plant.
• The stem is herbaceous , branched and glabrous or only lightly hairy.
• Branhing Stems are pale yellowish to green in color and spreading.
• Stems are leafy,stout, erect and smooth.
• Stems are branched repeatedly in a forked manner.
• It have hairy and big leaves.
• Leaves are simple dentate and the shape of leaves are oval.
• Leaves are glabrous and have opposite veins.
• Veins of leaves are pale black in color and stalked,4-6 inches long.
• leaves are pale green in color.
• The upper surface of leaves is dark and grayish green and smooth.
• The under surface of it is paler and on drying, minutely wrinkled.
• It bears funnel shaped flowers.
• Flowers are white or purple in color containg 5 stamens and superior ovary.
• Ovary is upto 3 inches long.
• The calyx of flower is long and tubular.
• Calyx is swollen below and very sharply five angled surmounted by five sharp teeth.
• The corolla of flower is funnel shaped.
• The stem stalk is pale blue or greenish white in color.
• Seeds are black and the shape of seeds are kidney shaped.
• Seeds are flat.
• Fruits of it are as large walnuts and they are full of throns.
• It grows upto 1.5m tall.
• Its odour is unplesent and the taste is bitter.
• It requires sunlight to grow and it prefers neutral or basic and dry soils.
• On ripening fruit opens into 4 compartments.

3. Chemical constituents:

• The chemical constituent of stramonium is alkaloids and it contain 0.5% of total alkaloids.
• Hyoscine is the main alkaloid work as chief chemical constituents.
• Atropine is also present in it but in very less amount.
• It contains scopolamine and other tropanes.
• Atropine is an antimuscarinic agent i.e. competitively binds with muscarinic receptors.
• Scopolamine commonly used to prevent motion sickness.

4. Uses:

• It have parasympatholytic and anticholinergic properties .
• It has CNS depressant effects.
• It is used to treat asthma.
• It is also used in cerebral excitement.
• It is also used to treat cough.
• It is aphrodisiac.
• It is used as wound and burn healer.
• It is used to treat colds.
• It is also used to treat epilepsy and acute mania.
• it is used to prevent motion sickness.
• It blocks short –term memory.
• It is used as gastrointestinal and urinary antispasmodic.
• It is used to treat tuberculosis and bronchitis by smoking dried leaves.
• It is used as a sedative .

5. Adulterants:

Tropane alkaloids are used as an adulterant of stramonium.


1. What is the botanical name of stramonium?
(a) Dianthus deltoids
(b) Sanvitalia procumbens
(c) Antirrhinum majus
(d) Datura stramonium

2. What is the biological source of stramonium?
(a) Leaves
(b) Flowers
(c) Root
(d) Both a and b

3. Stramonium belongs to which family?
(a) Rubiaceae
(b) Solanaceae
(c) Liliaceae
(d) Acanthaceae

4. Match the following with respect chemical constituent of plant.
i. Ephedra                                         A. vincristine
ii. Vinca                                             B. ephedrine
iii. Opium                                         C. hyoscine
iv. Stramonium                               D. Protopine
(a) i- A,ii-B,iii-C,iv-D
(b) i-B,ii-A,iii-D,iv-C
(c) i-B,ii-A,iii-D,iv-C
(d) i-C,ii-D,iii-B,iv-A

5. choose incorrect statement with respect to the medicinal uses of plants.
i. Nux vomica is used to treat chronic constipation.
ii. Coca is used to get relieve from hunger and fatigue.
iii. Stramonium is used to treat epilepsy.
iv. Kurchi is used to jaundice.
(a) Only i
(b) Both ii and iv
(c) Only iv
(d) Only ii

6. Leaves of stramonium are
(a) Simple dentate
(b) Oval shape
(c) Pale green in color
(d) All of the above

7. Flowers of stramonium are
(a) White or purple in color
(b) Funnel shaped
(c) Ovary is upto 3 inches
(d) All of the above

8. Starmonium used to treat
(a) Epilepsy
(b) Cough
(c) Asthma
(d) All of the above

9. What are the chemical constituents of stramonium?
(a) Hyoscine
(b) Scopolamine
(c) Atropine
(d) All of the above

10. What is the common adulterant of atramonium?
(a) Methylene blue dye
(b) Indigo dye
(c) Essential oil
(d) Tropane alkaloids

1. (d)
2. (d)
3. (b)
4. (c)
5. (c)
6. (d)
7. (d)
8. (d)
9. (d)
10. (d)

Evans W.C, Editors. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy , New York, Saunders, Elsevier;2009, p. 490,493.

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