Thin layer Chromatography: Principle, Procedure, Experimental Requirement, Advantage and Question Answer

Thin layer Chromatography (TLC) :-

TLC is method of analysis in which the stationary phase is spread as a thin layer on a rigid supporting plate.

The mobile phase a liquid is allowed to migrate across the stationary of plate.

TLC is a solid- liquid form of Chromatography, where the s.p. is polar and m.p. is non polar.

Principle :-

The principle of separation is adsorption.When a mixture containing one or more components are spotted on a TLC of absorbant coated on a chromatographic plate and introduce into a m.p. which are continuing distributing.

The m.p. is flow by capillary action.

The components with more affinity travel slow and that of lesser affinity travel faster.

Advantage of TLC :-

  1. Simple method.
  2. Rapid technique.
  3.  Low cost technique and less time consuming.
  4. Applied for all types of mixture.
  5. Detection is easy and not tedious.
  6. Efficiency of separation :- very small particle size can be ised which increase the efficiency of separation. Flow rate is not altered because of the particle size since it is not a closed column. It is planar type having thin layer of absorbant.
  7. Corrosive spray reagents can be used with out damage plate.

Practical Requirements :-

  1. Stationary phase
  2. Glass plate
  3. Preparation and activation of TLC plates
  4. Application of sample
  5. Development of tank
  6. Mobile phase
  7. Development of technique
  8. Detecting agent or visualising agent

1. Stationary phase :-

A large number of adsorbent can be used as stationary phase.

Choice of adsorbent:-

  1. Solubility of the substance :- like hydrophilic or lipophilic
  2. Nature of the compound :- acidic,basic or natural
  3. Chemically reactivity of compound with the binder example is
  • For inorganic absorbant :- alumina, calcium carbonate
  • For organic adsorbent :-  charcoal, dextrane etc


1. What is the principle of TLC ?

A. Partition

B. Absorption

C. Adsorption

D. A and B

2. Which sentence is false about TLC ?

A. It is very sample method

B. It is less time consuming.

C. Applied to allow type of sample.

D. It is very costly.

3. Which is not factor for choosing adsorbent ?

A. Nature of the adsorbent

B. Solubility of the adsorbent

C. Chemical nature

D. Temperature.

4. The m.p. is flow by

A. Capillary action

B. Partition coefficient

C. Temperature

D. All of the above

5. The components with more affinity towards the stationary phases is

A. Travels slow

B. Travels fast

C. A and B

D. None of the above

6.The components with less affinity towards the stationary phases is

A. Travels slow

B. Travels fast

C. A and B

D. None of the above

Answer key

1. C

2. D

3. D

4. A

5. A

6. B

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