Urinary Tract Infection: Symptoms, Causes, Prevention and MCQ for GPAT, NEET PG, Pharmacist,Nursing Exam

INTRODUCTION :-

1.] A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of your urinary system – your kidney, ureter, bladder and urethra.

2.] Most infection involves the lower kidney urinary tract – the bladder and the urethra.

3.] Women are at greater risk of developing a urinary tract infection then are men.

4.] If infection to your bladder can be painful and annoying. However, serious consequences can occur if an UTI spread to your kidney.

SYMPTOMS OF UTI :-

Urinary tract infection don’t always cause sings and symptoms, but when they do they may include:-

  • A strong, persistent urge to urinate.
  • A burning sensation when urinating.
  • Passing frequently, small amount of urine.
  • Urine that appears cloudy.
  • Urine that appears red, bright pink or cola colored – a sign of blood in urine.
  • Strong – smelling urine.
  • Pelvic pain, in women – especially in the center of the pelvis and around the area of pubic bone.
  • Pain or pressure in your back or lower abdomen.

CAUSES OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION :-

1.] Urinary tract infection typically occurs when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and begin to multiply in the bladder.

2.] The most common UTIs occurs mainly in women and affect the bladder and urethra :-

  • Infection of the bladder (cystitis)  : This type of UTI is caused usually by E. coli (Escherichia coli). All women are at risk of cystitis because of its anatomy specifically, the short distance from the urethra to  the anus and the urethral opening to the bladder.
  • Infection of the urethra (urethritis) : This type of UTI can occur when a GI bacteria spread from anus to urethra. Also, because the female urethra is close to the vagina, sexually transmitted infection, such as herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia and mycoplasma, can cause urethritis.

PREVENTION :-

  • Drink plenty of liquids, especially water.
  • Drink cranberry juice.
  • Wipe from front to back.
  • Empty your bladder soon after intercourse.
  • Avoid potentially irritating feminine products.
  • Change your birth control methods.

TREATMENT

Following drugs are used for treatment

  • Amoxicilline
  • Cephalosporins
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Metronidazole
  • Macrolides Antibiotics

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS :-

1.] The most common cause of UTI is ?

A. Escherichia coli (E.coli)

B. Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus)

C. Chlamydia

D. Mycoplasma

2.] Which is a common UTI risk factor in adults ?

A. Enlarged prostate

B. Catheter usage

C. Diabetes

D. All of the above

3.] What are the signs and symptoms of an UTI in adults ?

A. frequent urge to urinate

B. Pain during urination

C. Milky / cloudy urine

D. All of the above

4.] To prevent UTI some doctors recommend that people drink which liquid ?

A. Lemonade

B. Cranberry juice

C. Green tea

D. Apple juice

5.] On average, what percentage of pregnant women develop UTI ?

A. 50%

B. 25%

C. 10 – 15 %

D. About 1.5 %

6.] Which antibiotics are used in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs ?

A. Trimethoprim/ sulfamithoxazole (Bacterium, Septra cotrium)

B. Amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox)

C. Ampicillin (Omnipen, Pollycillin, Prinicipen, Totacillin)

D. All of the above

7.] What is not a common cause of UTIs in men ?

A. Urinary stone

B. Erectile dysfunction

C. Catheter usage

D. Enlarged prostate

8.] Which of the following may provide some relief from UTI pain ?

A. A heating pad

B. Drinking plenty of water

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above

9.] What percentage of women who have UTI will have another ?

A. 5%

B. 50%

C. 20 – 30%

D. None of the above

10.] A pregnant women who develop UTI need proper treatment to avoid ?

A. Premature delivery of the baby

B. High B.P.

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above

SOLUTIONS :-

1.] (A) Escherichia coli

2.] (D)

3.] (D)

4.] (B) Cranberry juice

5.] (D) About 1.5%

6.] (D)

7.] (B) Erectile dysfunction

8.] (C)

9.] (C) 20 – 30 %

10.] (C)

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REFERENCES :-

1.] Textbook Of Pathology By Harsh Mohan; 7th edition; Page no. 667 – 668.

2.] Robbin’s Basic Pathology; 5th edition; Page no. 991 – 992.

 

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