The surface of erythrocyte contain a number of antigen or agglutinogens on their surface which are composed of glycolipids and glycoproteins. Based on the presence and absence of various antigens, blood is characterized in different blood groups. Within a blood group there may be present 2 or more different blood type, here we will discuss 2 major blood group i.e the ABO blood group and Rh blood group.
THE ABO BLOOD GROUP
The ABO blood group is based on the presence of 2 glycolipid antigen- A and B. People who’s RBC display only A-antigen have type A blood group while people who’s RBC displays only B antigen will have type B blood group and person who’s RBC surface will have both A as well as B antigen will have type AB blood group, and lastly people who lack both A and B antigen on their RBC surface will have type O blood group.
Blood plasma usually have anti-bodies or agglutinins that react with A or B antigen if they are mixed. These are anti-A antibody and anti-B antibody. We do not have same antigen and antibody present in an individual i.e that if our blood contains A antigen at RBC surface than our plasma will contain anti-B antibody and not anti-A antibody. Table given below displays the antibody present for the given antigen-:
BLOOD GROUP ANTIGEN ANTI-BODY
1. A ANTIGEN- A ANTI-B ANTIBODY
2. B Antigen-B Anti- A antibody
3. AB Antigen A and Antigen B NONE
4. O None Anti-A and anti-B antibody
Because blood group AB people makes neither anti-A or anti-B antibody, they are sometimes known as universal recipients: transfusion of type A and type B blood into these individual is likely to be safe. While type O blood have neither A or B antigen on their RBC so they are known as universal donor.
THE Rh BLOOD GROUP:-
The Rh blood group is so named because the antigen was discovered in the blood of rhesus monkey. The RBC antigen important here is Rh antigen. About 85% of people have this antigen ; they are Rhesus positive (Rh+) and donor therefore make anti-Rh antibody. The remaining 15% of people have no Rhesus antigen, they are Rhesus negative (Rh-) and thus these individuals make anti-Rh antibody, but are stimulated only in certain circumstances, eg in pregnancy or during incorrect blood transfusion.
What is Blood Transfusion ?
It is explained conceptually in below lecture
MULTIPLE CHOISE QUESTIONS(MCQs)
1.On what basis blood type is classified?
A .antigen B .antibody
C. Rh factor D. Oxygen content
ANS : Rh factor
2. On what basis blood group is classified?
A. Antigen and antibody B. Rh factor
C. hemoglobin content D. Oxygen content
ANS: ANTIGEN AND ANTIBODY
3.If the blood of two different groups is mixed together, what problem is observed?
A. Coagulation B. Agglutination
C. Thrombus formation D. Embolism
4. Other than transfusion, when it is necessary to take Rh factor into consideration?
A. Spleen rupture B. Pregnancy
C. Blood donation D. Catheterization
5. If one of your parents is blood type A and other is blood type B, which of the following blood types would u likely to have?
A. A B. B
C. AB D. O E. Any one of the above
ANS: Any one of the above
6.Which of the following is known as universal recipient?
A. B B. A
C. O D. None of the above
ANS : None of the above
7. Match the following.
A. Antigens composed of glycolipids 1. Agglutinins
And glycoprotein at RBC surface 2. Type O group
B. anti-Rh antibody 3. Rh(-) blood type
C. antibody present in blood plasma
D. Both A antigen and B antigen absent 4. Agglutinogens
ANS-: A – 4 B – 3 D – 2 C – 1