Epilepsy: Definition, Pathogenesis, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

Epilepsy: Definition, Pathogenesis, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

“Epilepsy is a neurological disorder in which the nerve cells of the brain are disturbed which results into the seizures.”

1.] Epilepsy was first discovered in the year 400 B.C.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: –

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder in which there is a shift in balance between the inhibitory (γ-aminobutyric acid GABA) and the excitatory (glutamate) neurotransmission, in favor of the latter. The shift of the balance occurs because there is a selective loss of both GABA-ergic neuron after precipitating epileptogenic insults like status epilepticus, stroke and traumatic brain injury and there is a reorganization of neuronal circuits that favors the hypersynchrony of neuronal populations for example aberrant connections formed by the axons of dentate granule cells of the dentate gyrus, known as mossy fiber sprouting. The most common type of seizure is the Grand mal seizure.

CAUSES: –

Following are the causes of epilepsy:

  • Brain injury that left scar tissue or other sort of damage
  • Exposure to toxic substance
  • Malfunctioning of the gene
  • In case if a person with epilepsy drinks alcohol it can be dangerous because it can interfere with the medicine used to control seizures and it can also cause seizures.
  • Fever
  • N.S. Infection
  • Hypertension allergic, brain tumor

SYMPTOMS: –

Following are the symptoms of epilepsy:

  • Lack of sleep is the most powerful behavioral trigger that causes seizures
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Migraine headache
  • Jerking movement in arms and legs
  • Temporary confusion
  • Breathing cessation
  • Cyanosis
  • Automatism
  • Amnesia immediately after seizures
  • Automatic abnormalities
  • Unusual sensation

TREATMENT: –

Following are the medication used in the treatment of Epilepsy:

  • Carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Tegretol, Epitol, Equetro)
  • Clobazum (Onfi)
  • Diazepam (Valium, Diastat)
  • Gabapentin (Neurontin, Gralise)
  • Tiagabine hydrochloride (Gabitril)
  • Vigabatrin (Sabril)

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS: –

1.] Seizures can be caused by?

a. Brain injury that left scar tissue or other damage

b. Exposure to toxic substance

c. Malfunctioning gene

d. All of the above

2.] Epilepsy is most likely to begin in which age group?

a. Early childhood

b. Adolescence

c. Middle age

d. Age over 65

e. (e), (a) and (d)

3.] A person with epilepsy needs how much extra sleep at night?

a. 1 hour

b. 2 hour

c. 3 hour

d. No extra sleep

4.] Alcohol can be dangerous for a person with epilepsy because?

a. It can interfere with medicine used to control seizures

b. It can cause seizures

c. It can cause heart attack

d. Both (a) and (b)

5.] Which is the most common treatment to epilepsy?

a. Surgery

b. Special diet

c. Medication

d. An implanted electrical device

6.] If you have seizures, it means you have seizures?

a. True

b. False

7.] What is a most powerful behavioral trigger to seizures?

a. Mental illness

b. Lack of sleep

c. Binge eating

d. Snoring

8.] What is the most common type of seizure?

a. The grand male seizure

b. The absence seizure

c. The simple seizure

d. The complex seizure

9.] Epilepsy was first discovered in 400 B.C.?

a. True

b. False

10.] Patients with epilepsy often suffer with?

a. Depression

b. Anxiety

c. Migrant headaches

d. All of the above

 

SOLUTION: –

1.] (d)

2.] (e)

3.] (d) No extra sleep

4.] (d)

5.] (c) Medication

6.] (b)

7.] (b) Lack of sleep

8.] (a) The grand male seizure

9.] (a)

10.] (d)

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REFERENCES: –

1.] Robbin’s Basic Pathology; 5th edition; Page no.1339.

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