Terminalia Belerica Biological Sources, Morphological Features, Chemical Constituents, and Uses + MCQ (10)

Terminalia Belerica Biological Sources, Morphological Features, Chemical Constituents, and Uses + MCQ (10)

Terminalia Belerica

Synonyms :-

Beleric myrobalan, baheda, bibhitak.

Biological Source :-

It consists of dried ripe fruits of the plant Terminalia belerica Linn, belonging to family Combretaceae.

Geographical Source :-

The tree is found in all decidous forests of India, up to an altitude of 1000 m. It is found in abundance in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Maharashtra, and also in Sri Lanka and Malaya.

Climate :-

Temperature 30-45 C 
Rainfall 900-3000 mm
Sowing Temperature 30-35 C
Harvesting Temperature 15-20 C

Cultivation and Collection :-

Cultivation of the drug, though not done on commercial scale, can be carried out by sowing the seeds. The seeds can retain the viability for a year and their rate of germination is about 80%. The plant can also be raised by transplantation. It takes about 15 to 30 days for germination of seed. Maximum height of the plant is about 40 m and the girth is 2 to 3 m. The stem of the plant is straight the leaves are broadly elliptic and clustered towards the end of the branches. Flowers are simple, solitary and in auxiliary spikes.

Morphology :- 

Colour Fruit are dark brown to black
Odour None
Taste Astringent
Shape Strips, Flakes or coarse powder
Size 1.3 to 2 cm in length
Shape Fruit are globular and obscurely five angled.

Characteristics :-

Transverse section shows an outer epicarp consisting of a layer of epidermis, most of the epidermal cells elongate to form hair like protuberance with swollen base; next to epidermis it contains a zone of parenchymatous cells, slightly tangentially elongated and irregularly arranged. Stone cells of varying shape and size are present in between these parenchymatous cells. Mesocarp traversed in various directions by numerous vascular bundles collateral, endarch; simple starch grains and rosettes of calcium oxalate crystals are present in parenchymatous cells.

Chemical Constituents :-

The fruits contain about 20 to 30% of tannins and 40 to 45% water-soluble extractives. It contains colouring matter. It contains gallic acid, ellagic acid, phyllemblin, ethyl gallate, and galloyl glucose. The seeds contain nonedible oil. The plant produces a gum. It also contains most of the sugars as reported in myrobalan.

Uses :-

Bahera is used as an astringent and in the treatment of dyspepsia and diarrhoea. It is a constituent of triphala. The purgative property of half ripe fruit is due to the presence of fixed oil. The oil on hydrolysis yields an irritant recipe. Gum is used as a demulcent and purgative. Oil is used for the manufacture of soap

Adulterent :-

The bark of T.belliricia is used as adulterant to bark of Terminalia
arjuna. The fruits of T. belliricia are reported be used as a substitute
in tanning industry for Terminalia chebula.

MCQ 

1. Terminalia Belerica belong to family

A. Umbelliferae

B. Solanaceae

C. Liliaceae

D. Combretaceae

2. Which of the following is synonymous of Terminalia Belerica?

A. Nux vomica

B. Citral

C.Baheda

D. Devil dung

3. Which of the following is not belong to umbelliferae family ?

A. Clove

B. Bibhitak

C. Arjun

D. B and C

4. Which of the following is not use of Terminalia Belerica?

A. Astringent

B.  Constipation

C. Dyspepsia

D. Soap Industry

5. How many temperature is required for Harvesting of Terminalia Belerica ? 

A. 15-20 C

B.5-10 C

C. 25-30 C

D. 35-45 C

6. Which of the following is false sentence about Terminallia Belerica ?

A. The purgative property of half ripe fruit is due to the presence of fixed oil.

B. The tree is found in all decidous forests of India, up to an altitude of 1000 m.

C. It consists of dried ripe fruits of the plant Terminalia belerica Linn.

D. It has sweet taste.

7. Which of the following is not Morphology characteristics of Terminalia Belerica?

A. It fruit has dark brown to black.

B. It fruit has astringent.

C.  It fruit  are globular and obscurely four angled.

D. It fruit  are globular and obscurely five angled.

8. Which of the following is major chemical constituents of Terminalia Belerica?

A. Gallic acid

B. Ellagic acid,

C. Ethyl gallate

D. myrobalan

9. How Many mm rainfall is required for Terminalia Belerica ?

A. 400-600 mm

B. 900-3000 mm

C. 500-1500 mm

D. 2000-2500 mm

10. Which of the following seeds are contain Nonedible Oil ?

A. Fennel

B. Amla

C. Terminalia Arjuna

D. Terminalia Belerica

Answer Key :-

1. D

2. C

3. D

4. B

5. A

6. D

7. C

8. A

9. B

10. D

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Reference :- 

16 Edition of Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy Text Book ( Pg. No. :- 512)

Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) roxb. (Bahera) in health and disease: A systematic and comprehensive review

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0944711320301094

 

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