Hyperthyroidism : Definition, Etiopathogenesis, Symptoms, Clinical Features, Treatment And MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

Hyperthyroidism : Definition, Etiopathogenesis, Symptoms, Clinical Features, Treatment And MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

” Hyperthyroidism is an clinical and biochemical state caused due to the excess production of thyroid hormone.”

1.] Hyperthyroidism is also called thyrotoxicosis.

2.] This condition is more common and frequent in females than men.

3.] This disease is associated with the rise of T3 and T4 level in blood.

4.] In case of hyperthyroidism usually the level of T3 is greater then T4.

ETIOPATHOGENESIS :-

  • Usually hyperthyroidism can be caused by many diseases.
  • Three main  diseases which causes hyperthyroidism are – Grave’s disease, Toxic multinodular goiter and a Toxic adenoma.
  • Less frequent causes of hypothyroidism are – hypersecretion of pituitary TSH [Thyroid Stimulating Hormone] by a pituitary tumor, hypersecretion of TRH thyroiditis, metastatic tumors of the thyroid, congenital hyperthyroidism in newborn of mother etc.

SYMPTOMS :-

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism are as follows :

  • Patient suffer from excess sweating
  • Women suffer from irregular mensuration due to change in hormonal balance
  • Due to excessive high metabolism there will be an excessive hunger
  • Abnormal heart rhythm
  • Due to very high metabolism or fast metabolism there will be weight loss
  • Diarrhea
  • Hair loss
  • Muscle weakness
  • Mood swings or panic attacks

CLINICAL FEATURES :-

  • Patients with hyperthyroidism have a very slow and insidious beginning, depending upon the severity of the cases.
  • Cardiac manifestation in the form of tachycardia, palpitation and cardiomegaly are seen in hyperthyroidism.
  • Serum level of T3 and T4 are elevated but TSH secretion is usually inhibited.
  • A sudden spurt in the severity of hyperthyroidism termed ‘Thyroid Strom’ or thyroid crisis may occur in patients.
  • The patients suffering from thyroid crisis may suffer from high grade fever, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmia and coma and may die of congestive heart failure or hyperpyrexia.

TREATMENT :

Treatment Modalities in Thyroid Dysfunction | IntechOpen

The above image is taken for education purpose only from intechopen.com

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS :-

1.] Which of the following term describes hyperthyroidism following intake of iodine in patients suffering from endemic goiter ?

a. Wolff – chaikoff effect

b. Jod – Basedow’s effect

c. Grave’s disease

d. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

2.] Too much release of thyroid hormone in the body causes ?

a. Hypothyroidism

b. Hyperthyroidism

c. Goiter

d. None of the above

3.] What are the symptoms of too much release of T3 and T4 hormones ?

a. Anxiety

b. Nervousness

c. Hair loss

d. All of the above

4.] Which gland mainly controls and regulates the acute thyroid activity ?

a. Pituitary gland

b. Hypothalamus

c. Both (a) and (b)

d. Only (a)

5.] Name the condition marked by a low TSH ?

a. Hypothyroidism

b. Hyperthyroidism

c. Goiter

d. Thyroid cancer

6.] Thyroid disorders are often mistaken for the condition ?

a. Pregnancy

b. Menopause

c. Crohn’s disease

d. None of these

7.] The thyroid produces hormone regulating what bodily function ?

a. Temperature

b. B.P.

c. Digestion

d. Metabolism

8.] Rapid heart rate, weight loss, heat sensitivity are most likely the symptoms of ?

a. Thyroid cancer

b. Hypothyroidism

c. Hyperthyroidism

d. All of the above

9.] This type of epithelium is found in thyroid follicles ?

a. Columnar

b. Squamous

c. Cuboidal

d. Transitional

10.] Rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, very high body temperature are the symptoms of ?

a. Thyroid crisis

b. Thyroid strom

c. Thyroid failure

d. Thyroid death

SOLUTIONS :-

1.] (b) Jod – Basedow’s effect

2.] (b) Hyperthyroidism

3.] (d)

4.] (c)

5.] (b) Hyperthyroidism

6.] (b) Menopause

7.] (d) Metabolism

8.] (c) Hyperthyroidism

9.] (c) Cuboidal

10.] (b) Thyroid strom

 

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REFERENCES :-

1.] Textbook Of Pathology By Harsh Mohan; 7th edition; Page no. 793.

2.] Robbin’s Basic Pathology; 5th edition; Page no. 1122 – 1124.

 

 

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