Hyperthyroidism : Definition, Etiopathogenesis, Symptoms, Clinical Features, Treatment And MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

Hyperthyroidism : Definition, Etiopathogenesis, Symptoms, Clinical Features, Treatment And MCQs for NEET, GPAT, CSIR NET JRF

” Hyperthyroidism is an clinical and biochemical state caused due to the excess production of thyroid hormone.”

1.] Hyperthyroidism is also called thyrotoxicosis.

2.] This condition is more common and frequent in females than men.

3.] This disease is associated with the rise of T3 and T4 level in blood.

4.] In case of hyperthyroidism usually the level of T3 is greater then T4.


  • Usually hyperthyroidism can be caused by many diseases.
  • Three main  diseases which causes hyperthyroidism are – Grave’s disease, Toxic multinodular goiter and a Toxic adenoma.
  • Less frequent causes of hypothyroidism are – hypersecretion of pituitary TSH [Thyroid Stimulating Hormone] by a pituitary tumor, hypersecretion of TRH thyroiditis, metastatic tumors of the thyroid, congenital hyperthyroidism in newborn of mother etc.


Symptoms of hyperthyroidism are as follows :

  • Patient suffer from excess sweating
  • Women suffer from irregular mensuration due to change in hormonal balance
  • Due to excessive high metabolism there will be an excessive hunger
  • Abnormal heart rhythm
  • Due to very high metabolism or fast metabolism there will be weight loss
  • Diarrhea
  • Hair loss
  • Muscle weakness
  • Mood swings or panic attacks


  • Patients with hyperthyroidism have a very slow and insidious beginning, depending upon the severity of the cases.
  • Cardiac manifestation in the form of tachycardia, palpitation and cardiomegaly are seen in hyperthyroidism.
  • Serum level of T3 and T4 are elevated but TSH secretion is usually inhibited.
  • A sudden spurt in the severity of hyperthyroidism termed ‘Thyroid Strom’ or thyroid crisis may occur in patients.
  • The patients suffering from thyroid crisis may suffer from high grade fever, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmia and coma and may die of congestive heart failure or hyperpyrexia.


Treatment Modalities in Thyroid Dysfunction | IntechOpen

The above image is taken for education purpose only from intechopen.com



1.] Which of the following term describes hyperthyroidism following intake of iodine in patients suffering from endemic goiter ?

a. Wolff – chaikoff effect

b. Jod – Basedow’s effect

c. Grave’s disease

d. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

2.] Too much release of thyroid hormone in the body causes ?

a. Hypothyroidism

b. Hyperthyroidism

c. Goiter

d. None of the above

3.] What are the symptoms of too much release of T3 and T4 hormones ?

a. Anxiety

b. Nervousness

c. Hair loss

d. All of the above

4.] Which gland mainly controls and regulates the acute thyroid activity ?

a. Pituitary gland

b. Hypothalamus

c. Both (a) and (b)

d. Only (a)

5.] Name the condition marked by a low TSH ?

a. Hypothyroidism

b. Hyperthyroidism

c. Goiter

d. Thyroid cancer

6.] Thyroid disorders are often mistaken for the condition ?

a. Pregnancy

b. Menopause

c. Crohn’s disease

d. None of these

7.] The thyroid produces hormone regulating what bodily function ?

a. Temperature

b. B.P.

c. Digestion

d. Metabolism

8.] Rapid heart rate, weight loss, heat sensitivity are most likely the symptoms of ?

a. Thyroid cancer

b. Hypothyroidism

c. Hyperthyroidism

d. All of the above

9.] This type of epithelium is found in thyroid follicles ?

a. Columnar

b. Squamous

c. Cuboidal

d. Transitional

10.] Rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, very high body temperature are the symptoms of ?

a. Thyroid crisis

b. Thyroid strom

c. Thyroid failure

d. Thyroid death


1.] (b) Jod – Basedow’s effect

2.] (b) Hyperthyroidism

3.] (d)

4.] (c)

5.] (b) Hyperthyroidism

6.] (b) Menopause

7.] (d) Metabolism

8.] (c) Hyperthyroidism

9.] (c) Cuboidal

10.] (b) Thyroid strom


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1.] Textbook Of Pathology By Harsh Mohan; 7th edition; Page no. 793.

2.] Robbin’s Basic Pathology; 5th edition; Page no. 1122 – 1124.



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