” Hyperthyroidism is an clinical and biochemical state caused due to the excess production of thyroid hormone.”
1.] Hyperthyroidism is also called thyrotoxicosis.
2.] This condition is more common and frequent in females than men.
3.] This disease is associated with the rise of T3 and T4 level in blood.
4.] In case of hyperthyroidism usually the level of T3 is greater then T4.
- Usually hyperthyroidism can be caused by many diseases.
- Three main diseases which causes hyperthyroidism are – Grave’s disease, Toxic multinodular goiter and a Toxic adenoma.
- Less frequent causes of hypothyroidism are – hypersecretion of pituitary TSH [Thyroid Stimulating Hormone] by a pituitary tumor, hypersecretion of TRH thyroiditis, metastatic tumors of the thyroid, congenital hyperthyroidism in newborn of mother etc.
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism are as follows :
- Patient suffer from excess sweating
- Women suffer from irregular mensuration due to change in hormonal balance
- Due to excessive high metabolism there will be an excessive hunger
- Abnormal heart rhythm
- Due to very high metabolism or fast metabolism there will be weight loss
- Hair loss
- Muscle weakness
- Mood swings or panic attacks
CLINICAL FEATURES :-
- Patients with hyperthyroidism have a very slow and insidious beginning, depending upon the severity of the cases.
- Cardiac manifestation in the form of tachycardia, palpitation and cardiomegaly are seen in hyperthyroidism.
- Serum level of T3 and T4 are elevated but TSH secretion is usually inhibited.
- A sudden spurt in the severity of hyperthyroidism termed ‘Thyroid Strom’ or thyroid crisis may occur in patients.
- The patients suffering from thyroid crisis may suffer from high grade fever, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmia and coma and may die of congestive heart failure or hyperpyrexia.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS :-
1.] Which of the following term describes hyperthyroidism following intake of iodine in patients suffering from endemic goiter ?
a. Wolff – chaikoff effect
b. Jod – Basedow’s effect
c. Grave’s disease
d. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
2.] Too much release of thyroid hormone in the body causes ?
d. None of the above
3.] What are the symptoms of too much release of T3 and T4 hormones ?
c. Hair loss
d. All of the above
4.] Which gland mainly controls and regulates the acute thyroid activity ?
a. Pituitary gland
c. Both (a) and (b)
d. Only (a)
5.] Name the condition marked by a low TSH ?
d. Thyroid cancer
6.] Thyroid disorders are often mistaken for the condition ?
c. Crohn’s disease
d. None of these
7.] The thyroid produces hormone regulating what bodily function ?
8.] Rapid heart rate, weight loss, heat sensitivity are most likely the symptoms of ?
a. Thyroid cancer
d. All of the above
9.] This type of epithelium is found in thyroid follicles ?
10.] Rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, very high body temperature are the symptoms of ?
a. Thyroid crisis
b. Thyroid strom
c. Thyroid failure
d. Thyroid death
1.] (b) Jod – Basedow’s effect
2.] (b) Hyperthyroidism
5.] (b) Hyperthyroidism
6.] (b) Menopause
7.] (d) Metabolism
8.] (c) Hyperthyroidism
9.] (c) Cuboidal
10.] (b) Thyroid strom
1.] Textbook Of Pathology By Harsh Mohan; 7th edition; Page no. 793.
2.] Robbin’s Basic Pathology; 5th edition; Page no. 1122 – 1124.