Vitamins: Definition, Classification, Disease, Source and MCQs for GPAT, NEET, CSIR NET, UPSC, SSC Exams Preparation

Vitamins: Definition, Classification, Disease, Source and MCQs for GPAT, NEET, CSIR NET, UPSC, SSC Exams Preparation

Vitamins are organic nutrients that are required for the proper functioning of a no. of biomolecules. These vitamins are not synthesized in the body that’s why they must be supplied through the diet. Classification of vitamins Vitamins are divided in two groups based on their solubility:

    • Water soluble vitamins
    • Fat soluble vitamins

 

Water soluble vitamins include vitamin B complex, Vitamin C and Biotin.

  • Thiamine (VitaminB1):- Thiamine consists of pyrimidine ring attached to a thiazole ring. it helps the body to convert food into energy. It also aids the function of heart and brain.
  • Riboflavin (Vitamin B2):- It is a yellow compound consisting of an isoalloxazine ring with rabitol side chain. It works with other vitamins of B complex for healthy growth and tissue repair. It also helps to release energy from carbohydrates.
  • Niacin (Vitamin B3):- It is a simple derivative of pyrimidine. It helps to release energy from carbohydrates. It also plays an important role in DNA repair and other cellular responses to DNA damage.
  • Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5):- It is formed from the combination of pantoic acid and beta-alanine. It is a component of acetyl-CoA and acyl carrier protein (ACP).
  • Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6):- It is formed from the mixture of 3 pyridine derivatives which are: pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. It is important in forming RBC, breakdown of proteins, synthesis of antibodies etc.
  • Folic acid (Vitamin B9):- Consist of 3 components: pteridine ring, p-amino benzoic acid and L-glutamic acid. It aids the production of RBCs and synthesis of DNA.
  • Cynocobalamin (VitaminB12):- It is important for the metabolism, formation of RBCs, and maintenance of CNS.
  • Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C):– It is a six carbon sugar derivative. It works as reducing agent. It is also required in bone as well as for wound healing process. It prevents atherosclerosis and coronary artery diseases.
  • Biotin (Vitamin H):- It is an imidazole derivative. Biotin is a co-enzyme of carboxylase reactions.

 

Fat soluble vitamins include

  • Vitamin A:- Vitamin A contains a 6-membered ring to which 11-carbon side chain is attached. Vitamin A is an alcohol (retinol) but it cannot be converted into aldehyde (retinal) or an acid (retinoic acid).

It maintains health of specialized tissue like retina, also promotes the development of teeth, soft and skeletal tissue.

  • Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol):- It regulates blood-calcium and blood-phosphorous, regulates calcification of bone. Deficiency of vitamin D leads to rickets.
  • Tocopherol (Vitamin E):- It consist of eight naturally occurring tocopherols. It protects the cell membrane and tissue. It promotes healthy functions of circulatory systems.
  • Vitamin K:- It plays an important role in blood coagulation. It is required for carboxylation of glutamic acid. It acts as a calcium-binding protein in bones.

Vitamins

Chemical name

Solubility

Deficiency disease

Food source

Vitamin A

Retinol

Fat

Night blindness, hyperkeratosis, keratomalacia

Fish, dairy products, orange, green vegetables

Vitamin B1

Thiamine

Water

Beri-Beri, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

Grains, brown rice, potatoes, liver, eggs

Vitamin B2

Riboflavin

Water

Angular stomatitis, glossitis

Dairy products, banana, green beans

Vitamin B3

Niacin

Water

Pellagra

Meat, fish, eggs, mushrooms

Vitamin B5

Pantothenic acid

Water

Paresthesia

Meat, broccoli, avocados

Vitamin B6

Pyridoxine

Water

Anemia, peripheral neuropathy

Meat, vegetables, tree nuts

Vitamin B7

Biotin

Water

Dermatitis

Raw egg yolk, liver, peanuts, leafy vegetables

Vitamin B9

Folic acid

Water

Megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects

Leafy vegetable, pasta, bread

Vitamin B12

Methylcobalamin

Water

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

Meat, poultry, fish, eggs

Vitamin C

Ascorbic acid

Water

Scurvy

Many fruits and vegetables, liver

Vitamin D

Cholecalciferol

Fat

Rickets, osteomalacia

Eggs, liver, mushrooms

Vitamin E

Tocopherols

Fat

Hemolytic anemia in infants

Many fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, seed oil

Vitamin K

Menaquinones

Fat

Bleeding diathesis

Spinach, egg yolk, liver

 

Multiple choice questions (MCQs)

 

1. What are vitamins?

A. Biomolecules

B. Organic nutrients

C. Inorganic nutrients

D. Both B and C

2. Vitamins are classified in how many groups?

A. 2

B. 3

C. 4

D. 6

3. What is the main basis for the classification of the vitamins?

A. Structure

B. Functions

C. Solubility

D. Composition

4. Which vitamin is also known as niacin?

A. Vitamin B3

B. Vitamin E

C. Vitamin B5

D. Vitamin D

5. Deficiency of which vitamin causes rickets?

A. Vitamin B3

B. Vitamin E

C. Vitamin B5

D. Vitamin D

6. Which vitamin is composed a six-member ring attached to 11-carbon side chain?

A. Vitamin B1

B. Vitamin K

C. Vitamin E

D. Vitamin A

7. Which vitamin helps in blood coagulation?

A. Vitamin B1

B. Vitamin K

C. Vitamin E

D. Vitamin A

8. Match the following-

a. Vitamin B12 1. biotin

b. Vitamin B1 2. Ascorbic acid

c. Vitamin C 3. Thiamine

d. Vitamin H 4. cynocobalamine

9. Which of the following is the function of Vitamin A?

A. Development of teeth

B. Maintaining healthy retina

C. Development of soft tissue

D. All of the above

10. Which vitamin acts as a co-enzyme in carboxylase reactions?

A. Thiamine

B. Biotin

C. Niacin

D. Pyridoxine

11. Which enzyme is also known as folic acid?

A. B12

B. Vitamin K

C. Vitamin B5

D. None of the above

12. Which of the following statement is NOT true?

A. Vitamins are classifies according to its structure

B. Biotin works as co-enzyme

C. Vitamin K works for blood coagulation

D. Vitamin E works for healthy functioning of circulatory systems

13. Which vitamin is the component of acetyl-CoA and ACP?

A. B9

B. Vitamin K

C. Vitamin B5

C. All of the above

14. Which vitamin serves as reducing agent?

A. Biotin

B. Folic acid

C. Ascorbic acid

D. Pyridoxine

15. Which vitamin consists of pyrimidine ring attached to thiazole ring?

A. Vitamin B1

B. Vitamin K

C. Vitamin E

D. Vitamin A

ANSWERS:-

1. Organic nutrients

2. 2

3. Solubility

4. Vitamin B3

5. Vitamin D

6. Vitamin A

7. Vitamin K

8. a – 4 b – 3 c – 2 d – 1

9. All of the above

10. Biotin

11. None of the above

12. Vitamins are classifies according to its structure

13. Vitamin B5

 14. Ascorbic acid

15. Vitamin B1

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REFERENCE:- Pankaja Naik- Biochemistry; 4th edition; page no:- 353-375

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